1. An ? 8 _4 _. has staggered holes for ? -in. diameter bolts, as shown in Figure P9.4. Determine.

1.An ? 8 _4 _. has staggered holes for ?-in. diameter bolts, as shown in Figure P9.4. Determine the net area ( Ag = 5.80 in.2, centroid x = 0.854 in.). 2. A channel section C 9 _20 has the bolt pattern shown in Figure P9.5. Determine the net area for .-in. bolts. 3. A W8 _31 column of A36 steel is 20 ft long. Along the y axis, it is hinged at both ends. Along the x axis, it is hinged at one end and free to translate at the other end. In which direction is it likely to buckle ( rx = 3.47 in., ry = 2.02 in.)?

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