Choose a disability from your textbook, instructor’s acceptable list, or other appropriate resource.? 4. Research the disability.? 5. Discuss topics and/or answer the questions in the Expl


3. Choose a disability from your textbook, instructor’s acceptable list, or other appropriate resource. 

4. Research the disability. 

5. Discuss topics and/or answer the questions in the Explanation of Terms section below. 

6. Choose sources to cite. 

7. Choose P-12 Code of Ethics or NAEYC Code of Ethical Conduct Statement to reference (found in the ERF 

Module in Canvas).  

8. Research community organizations and/or advocacy groups for children with the disability you chose. 

9. Make any changes to each of the three RF parts as recommended by your instructor. 

10. Transfer the 3 edited parts to the ERF Template. 

Julia Johnson

CDEC 1359

Summer II 2023

Resource File #2





· Name: Locomotor disability


Applying Parts (Amendments B and C) of Individuals with Disabilities Act (IDEA) and the Rehabilitation Act of 1973. 


Children with locomotor disabilities experience difficulties with physical movements due to impairments in limbs, muscles, or bones. These disabilities may entail conditions like cerebral palsy, muscular dystrophy, or spinal cord injuries. The age at which a child is diagnosed or identified with locomotor disability varies depending on specific conditions and severity. According to Sarkodie-Gyan and Yu (2023), locomotor disability can manifest at any age.

Diagnosis often happens in infancy or early childhood when developmental milestones are missed which signals potential concerns.

Children with early locomotor disability receive specialized education as per relevant legislation addressing their unique needs. The Rehabilitation Act of 1973 provides for the 504 Plan catering to children between 6 and 21 years (Cawthon & Randolph, 2023). However, children under six have educational rights under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) for early intervention services and support for developmental delays or disabilities. The act ensures learning disabilities receive appropriate special education services and support to facilitate their development and learning from an early age.

Part C of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) comes into play when a child from birth up to 3 years old is diagnosed with a locomotor disability (Fiss & Jeffries, 2020). Part C aims to provide early intervention services to support children’s development and enhance their functional abilities during the crucial formative years. The focus is on early identification and assistance to help children reach developmental milestones.

Once a child turns 3 years old, they transition from Part C to Part B of IDEA. Part B caters to children aged 3 to 6 years and focuses on special education and related services designed to meet unique needs arising from their locomotor disability. These services may entail physical therapy, occupational therapy, and adaptive equipment to facilitate children’s participation in educational settings and improve their overall quality of life.

At age six, eligible children transitioning from Part B may qualify for a 504 Plan under Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 to receive appropriate educational accommodations and services. 504 Plan ensures children receive appropriate accommodations and support in the general classroom to promote academic success and participation in extracurricular activities (Whitney, 2022). These accommodations could entail physical accessibility, extra time for assignments, or other necessary adjustments to ensure the child can fully engage in educational activities.

1. Applying  

Developmental Plans (IFSP, IEP, and 504 Plan). 


The Individualized Family Support Plan (IFSP) is designed for children with locomotor disability aged from birth to 3 years. It encompasses various essential components, starting with a comprehensive assessment of the child’s present levels of functioning and needs across physical, cognitive, communication, social/emotional, and adaptive development.

It takes a family-centered approach to empower and enable families to assist their child’s needs. The IFSP considers valuable family information, aligning intervention strategies with the family’s strengths, concerns, and preferences (Rutland, 2022). Specific and measurable goals are set to track the child’s progress, and the plan outlines the early intervention services, their location, timing, and financial responsibilities. A designated service coordinator ensures smooth communication and coordination between all involved parties.

The development of the IFSP is a collaborative effort involving key stakeholders, primarily the child’s parents, who play a central role and offer unique insights into their child’s needs. Other family members, advocates, professionals who conducted evaluations, and the individuals providing early intervention services also contribute to crafting effective and tailored interventions. As the child approaches the age of 3, the IFSP includes a transition plan to ensure continuity of care and support as the child transitions to a new educational setting.

IDEA mandates that states offer free, suitable public education to eligible special education students aged at least 3. The IEP defines the student’s specific needs, strengths, and challenges. It outlines clear educational goals and objectives tailored to students’ abilities and circumstances. The child’s IEP undergoes regular reviews and updates to cater to their changing developmental stages and ensure continued support for their evolving requirements (Correia et al., 2021). The IEP team which encompasses teachers, therapists, parents, and other relevant professionals, assess the child’s current abilities, challenges, and achievements. Based on the evaluated results, the team sets new, specific, measurable goals for the upcoming school year. The IEP outlines the services and supports needed to help the student reach these goals, including accommodations within regular classrooms or additional specialized instruction. The process ensures special education services are aligned with the child’s age-appropriate developmental milestones.

As the child matures, the IEP addresses their transition into new educational phases. For instance, as a child moves from elementary to middle school or from middle school to high school, the IEP considers changing academic demands and social environments. The plan may incorporate strategies to help students succeed in different subjects and navigate new social dynamics. Additionally, depending on the student’s age and aspirations, the IEP may incorporate a focus on preparing the student for post-secondary education, vocational training, or employment.

A 504 plan ensures students with locomotor disability receive appropriate accommodations and support to succeed in regular classroom settings. 504 plan evolves to address their changing needs and challenges. The process begins when a parent, teacher, or school staff member requests an evaluation for a 504 plan (Eichorn, 2021). A team entailing school personnel and relevant professionals’ reviews student’s records, assessments, and teacher input to determine eligibility. If the team agrees that the student qualifies, they collaborate with the parents to create a personalized accommodations plan that removes learning barriers.

For a student with a locomotor disability, the 504 plan might include accommodations such as seating arrangements, extra time to move between classes, access to elevators or ramps, and specialized physical therapy sessions. The accommodations aim to facilitate the student’s mobility and ensure they have equal access to education. The 504 plan is reviewed annually to assess its effectiveness and adjust as needed to meet the student’s evolving needs.

504 plan is centered on providing necessary support and adjustments to the learning environment. Parents actively participate in discussions with the 504 team, staying informed about the plan’s accommodations and communicating their feedback on its effectiveness. Parents can ensure that their child’s 504 plan adapts to their needs over time, allowing them to thrive academically and reach their full potential.


Cawthon, C., & Randolph, J. (2023). Museums and Disability Rights: The Road from the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 to the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990.

Correia, A., Teixeira, V., & Forlin, C. (2021). Home-School collaboration in assessment, placement, and individual education plan development for children with special education needs in Macao: The Views of Parents. School Community Journal, 31(1), 205–231.

Eichorn, R. L. (2021). Administrator Perceptions of 504 Plan and Special Education Eligibility Processes for Students with ADHD – ProQuest.

Fiss, A. L., & Jeffries, L. (2020). Early intervention services for young children with Cerebral Palsy. Celebral Palsy, 2455–2472.

Rutland, J. H. (2022). Individualized Family Service Plan. Individualized Family Service Plan.

Sarkodie-Gyan, T., & Yu, H. (2023). Challenges and Concerns to Society: The Human Locomotor System. Springer International Publishing., 99–122.

Whitney, J. (2022). Supports for students with learning disabilities. Supports for Students with Learning Disabilities.


Resource File Part 1



1. Disability Name, Type & Category


· Name: locomotor disability

· Type: Physical /Mental impairment and physical limitations

· Category: Poliomyelitis, cerebral palsy, amputation, spine, head, soft tissue, fracture and muscular dystrophy are all disorders that might cause mobility problems (Krishnan, et al. 2021).

2. Causes & Statistical Data

Several diseases and injuries can leave patients unable to walk or move around for an extended period. Polio is probably the most recognized case in point. We’ve all seen how polio leaves victims needing wheelchairs and crutches to get around. This is because, due to polio’s common effect of weakening limb muscles, the affected individual would have limited mobility in their limbs.

Other sources include:

· Locomotor impairment is often the result of amputation (the loss of a limb or part of a limb).

· CP, or Cerebral Palsy

· Myotonic dystrophy

· Disorders of the nervous system

· Illnesses of the heart and lungs

In children, cerebral palsy (CP) is the leading cause of motor impairment. Prevalence estimates for CP vary from 1 to nearly 4 per 1,000 live births or per 1,000 offspring, according to current population-based studies directed all over the globe. In 2010, the CDC’s Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring (ADDM) Network estimated that CP affected 1 in 345 children in the United States, or 3 out of every 1,000 children aged 8 years old” (Qin, et al. 2021). Children born early or with a low birth mass are more probable to grow cerebral palsy. The data suggest a worldwide drop in the incidence of CP, especially in children of moderate and extremely low birth weight.

Source: “Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2023, February 23). Learn more about cerebral palsy (CP). Centres for Disease Control and Prevention.”

3. Treatments &  Therapies 

1. Conventional surgery: Tendon lengthening, bone fusions, and derotation osteotomy are the cornerstone of surgical therapy for children with cerebral palsy for a long time. As a result of the sequential nature of these treatments, a “birthday syndrome” has been identified (orthopedic surgery once a year, followed by “physiotherapy to relearn a walking method,” and then another process the following year to issue the resultant tightened muscles). Multi-level surgical intervention is progressively replacing these programs because of their lack of positive effects on the child’s sense of self-worth, social development, or academic performance.

2. Targeted training: The idea upon which this prospective treatment is founded is that a typically developing kid acquires motor control from the head to the feet. To prevent the kid from becoming overwhelmed by too many control demands, this method employs specifically built equipment to offer the appropriate degree of support for one or two joints at a time. Using the program for a certain amount of time each day, it is possible to advance “motor control learning” in a downward way after rigorous evaluation identifies the greatest body segment missing in control (typically the head in offspring with cerebral palsy). The approach is showing promising early results.

3. Less orthodox treatments: Hyperbaric oxygen therapy, cranial osteopathy, reflexology, etc. are some of the newer therapies for “children with cerebral palsy.” The passage of time and scientific investigation has proven that many of these treatments are not 100% recommended. However, we need to be well-informed about such “trends” when they are at their peak so that we may effectively assist vulnerable parents (Campos-Pires, et al. 2020). Although the scientific grounds for their usage are not always apparent, it is crucial to have an open mind on these topics.

4. Botulinum toxin: Botulinum toxin injections into spastic muscles to prevent further neuromuscular transmission have become widespread in current years.7,22 Primarily, it has been applied to the “calf muscles” of children with hemiplegia or diplegia to prevent dynamic equinus of the ankle. Botulinum toxin’s effects are temporary; therefore, more injections are required every three to four months. Although the method is straightforward, seems risk-free, and effectively paralyzes the muscle, it has not been demonstrated whether or if it improves gait in the long run. Clinical trials have not consistently shown any positive effects.

4. Implications on a Child’s Development and Learning 


· physical  

The physical growth of a kid is drastically altered by an impairment in locomotion. Their mobility is restricted, preventing them from doing things like crawling, walking, and running. Their muscular tone, coordination, and mobility will all suffer as a result.

· motor 

Fine motor capabilities and gross motor aids, such as walking and leaping, are both encompassed in the motor domain. Having trouble with both fine and gross motor abilities, a kid with a locomotor may have trouble with activities that call for precise movements or coordinated physical motions.

· cognitive  

The capability to think, reason, and understand information is known as cognitive development. Children with locomotor disability may be at a weakness when it comes to knowledge about their environments and creating interactions with others (Dana, 2020). Fewer opportunities for hands-on learning can stunt their intellectual development and limit their capacity to solve problems.

· communication  

The growth of communication skills comprises not only the capability to comprehend and use language but also to generate and share one’s own. A child’s social and language growth may be underdeveloped if they have worry moving about and receiving around. Their inability to use gestures or other non-verbal means of communication successfully may also result from physical mobility difficulties.

· social-emotional

A child’s capability for social communication, emotional control, and individuality formation are all part of the socio-emotional domain. A child’s capability to engage in bodily play or participate in actions with their peers may be restricted by a locomotor impairment. This can have consequences for their emotional and social development, putting them in danger of feeling emotions like anger, aloneness, and low self-confidence.

5. Implications on the Family Members

1. Grief, frustration, and fear are just some of the feelings that families may go through as they adjust to their child’s condition. They might struggle with issues of acceptance, settling into new habits, and coping with potential constraints and future uncertainty.

2. Medical costs, specialized tools, assistive devices, therapy sessions, and house and vehicle adaptations can all add up, putting a strain on families’ budgets. The financial resources of a family might be seriously taxed by such expenses.

3. It’s possible that households may have to make major changes to how they usually do things (Gokhale, 2021). This may need setting aside more time for things like doctor visits, therapy sessions, and the use of mobility aids. Installation of ramps and alterations to toilets, among other possible modifications, may be necessary to make the home accessible to the youngster.

4. The physical restrictions of a kid can cause social isolation and make it hard for families to participate in everyday activities. They may face prejudice and discrimination, which may be taxing on their psyches and undermine their health.

V ideo link:

Link: “

Work Cited

Campos-Pires, R., Onggradito, H., Ujvari, E., Karimi, S., Valeo, F., Aldhoun, J., … & Dickinson, R. (2020). Xenon treatment after severe traumatic brain injury improves locomotor outcome, reduces acute neuronal loss and enhances early beneficial neuroinflammation: a randomized, blinded, controlled animal study.  Critical Care24, 1-18.

Dana, A., & Christodoulides, E. (2020). The effects of a period of selected physical activity on improving manipulative and locomotor skills of children with neuropsychological learning disabilities. Journal of Rehabilitation Sciences & Research7(1), 25-30.

Gokhale, C. (2021). Parenting a child with a disability: A review of caregivers’ needs in India and service implications.  Birth Defects in India: Epidemiology and Public Health Implications, 335-349.

Krishnan, L., & Madankumar, P. D. (2021). Oral health status of people with locomotor disability in India: A systematic review.  Scientific Dental Journal5(1), 12.

Qin, Z. S., Zheng, Y., Zhou, X. D., Shi, D. D., Cheng, D., Shek, C. S., … & Zhang, Z. J. (2021). Shexiang boxing pill, a proprietary multi-constituent Chinese medicine, prevents locomotor and cognitive impairment caused by brain ischemia and reperfusion injury in rats: a potential therapy for neuropsychiatric sequelae of stroke. Frontiers in Pharmacology12, 665456.







Julia Johnson

CDEC 1359

Summer II 2023

Resource File #3



1. Disability

Locomotor disability

2. Academic Considerations 


The student will demonstrate an understanding of assessment’s goals, benefits, and uses, including its use in developing appropriate goals, curriculum, and teaching strategies for young children (Standard 3a)

The diagnosis of locomotor disability can happen at any age, with numerus children being identified during infancy or early childhood when developmental milestones are missed, raising concerns about potential disabilities. The IFSP is designed for children with locomotor disabilities aged from birth to 3 years. It takes a family-centered approach, involving key stakeholders, especially the child’s parents, in the decision-making process. The IFSP starts with a comprehensive assessment of the child’s present levels of functioning and needs across physical, cognitive, communication, social/emotional, and adaptive development.

The IFSP encompasses specific and measurable goals to track the child’s progress and outlines early intervention services, their location, timing, and financial responsibilities. A designated service coordinator ensures smooth communication and coordination between all involved parties. As the child ages 3, the IFSP includes a transition plan to ensure continuity of care and support as the child transitions to a new educational setting (Waters & Friesen, 2019).

3. Accommodations 


The student will demonstrate knowledge and understanding of effective strategies and tools for early education, including appropriate uses of technology or assistive devices, by describing accommodations for young children with the selected exceptionality.  

(Standard 4b)

General special education accommodations

1. Flexible Classroom Seating: Children can be provided flexible seating arrangements to choose seating options that suit their comfort and mobility needs.

2. Providing the child with short breaks during classroom activities can help manage fatigue and provide opportunities for stretching or movement.

3. Assigning a “buddy” within the class who is aware of the child’s condition and accepts them can promote a supportive and inclusive environment (Cole et al., 2021).

Disability Specific Accommodations

4. Regular physical therapy sessions can be integrated into the child’s school schedule to support their physical development and enhanc Plagiarism Free Papers

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