For this week you will provide your exact teaching method in a manualized format.? Don’t forget to include how you will address issues of generalization, and expected mastery criterion.? (


For this week you will provide your exact teaching method in a manualized format.  Don’t forget to include how you will address issues of generalization, and expected mastery criterion.  (For Applied Project 6 you will be submitting the data forms that will be used along with your training procedure – but I will provide you with more information before that is due.)


Nhazanu Yekeh Pessima

AUT 540 Module 3

Applied Project 1

June 18, 2023

Skill: Hand Washing

The importance of Hand Washing

Hand washing hands regularly using running water is essential to any individual. Keeping hands clean kills bacteria and germs, which cause diseases such as COVID-19 and diarrhea. Fewer people are admitted to the hospital due to these illnesses. In schools, washing hands is important, and this skill should be continuously practiced enabling learners to become responsible and dependable. They habitually wash their hands after eating and visiting the toilet. In the early stages of development of a child, washing hands helps a child develop cognitive concepts and ideas, making them grow in the right manner. I chose to teach the concept of handwashing to educate individuals and the public on preventive measures against some emerging diseases. Most importantly, the topic aims to improve the community’s hygienic levels.


AUT 540

Handwashing References

Nhazanu Yekeh Pessima

Graduate School College of Education, Endicott College,


Professor. Gloria Satriale

June 30, 2023


Agaro, A., Hareru, H. E., Muche, T., Sisay W/tsadik, D., Ashuro, Z., Negassa, B., Legesse, M. T., Kaso, A. W., Alemu, W., Alemayehu Gube, A., Aregu, M. B., & Soboksa, N. E. (2022). Predictors of hand-washing practices at critical times among mothers of under-5 years old children in rural setting of Gedeo Zone, southern Ethiopia. Environmental Health Insights, 16, 117863022211207.

Ayran, G., Köse, S., Sarıalioğlu, A., & Çelebioğlu, A. (2022). Hand hygiene and mask-wearing behaviors and the related factors during the COVID 19 pandemic: A cross-sectional study with secondary school students in Turkey. Journal of Pediatric Nursing, 62, 98–105.

Bugis, B., & Chandramohan, S. (2022). Behaviors and associated factors of hand hygiene and mask-wearing among higher education students during the COVID-19 pandemic: A cross-sectional study from Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Majmaah Journal of Health Sciences, 10(3), 34.

Gião, M. S., & Vardoulakis, S. (2022). Aerosols and bacteria from hand washing and drying in indoor air. Frontiers in Public Health, 10.

Idris, I., Nursiah, A., Syarif, I., & Latif, Y. (2022). Handwashing with soap counseling (CTPS) on children’s knowledge and attitudes in the era of the COVID-19 pandemic. Jurnal Ilmiah Kesehatan (JIKA), 4(2), 252–258.

Nuzul Ulpa, A., & Djuari, L. (2023). The effect of health promotion on clean and Healthy Living Behavior(CHLB) “handwashing with soap” to school children using various methods and media. International Journal of Research Publications, 117(1).

Sedekia, Y., Kapiga, S., Mcharo, O., Makata, K., Torondel, B., Dreibelbis, R., & Okello, E. (2022). Does a school-based intervention to engage parents change opportunity for handwashing with soap at home? practical experience from the Mikono Safi trial in Northwestern Tanzania. PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 16(6).

Umar, H., Geremew, A., Worku Kassie, T., Dirirsa, G., Bayu, K., Mengistu, D. A., Berhanu, A., & Mulat, S. (2022). Hand hygiene compliance and associated factor among nurses working in public hospitals of Hararghe Zones, Oromia Region, eastern Ethiopia. Frontiers in Public Health, 10.

Wahl, K., Scholl, P. M., Wirth, S., Miché, M., Häni, J., Schülin, P., & Lieb, R. (2022). On the automatic detection of enacted compulsive hand washing using commercially available wearable devices. Computers in Biology and Medicine, 143, 105280.

White, S., Mutula, A. C., Buroko, M. M., Heath, T., Mazimwe, F. K., Blanchet, K., Curtis, V., & Dreibelbis, R. (2022). How does handwashing behavior change in response to a cholera outbreak? A qualitative case study in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. PLOS ONE, 17(4).



AUT 540 M1

Applied Project 3 – Intro/Lit Review (Handwashing)

Nhazanu Yekeh Pessima

Graduate School College of Education, Endicott College,


Professor. Gloria Satriale

July 9, 2023

Hand washing is an important skill that applies to all individuals living in society starting from toddlers, school-going children, adolescents, and adults. Most importantly, his paper focuses on the importance of this skill to learners with autism spectrum disorder.(ASD). It involves using soap and clean water to kill accumulated germs in the hands. After every task which involves touching surfaces, learners with ASD need to wash their hands for the benefit of their healthy well-being. In school, learners must wash their hands after visiting toilets, after class activities, and before taking meals. Teachers should therefore take the role of educating them on how to implement the skill at all levels of learning. Common defects associated with failure to wash hands include the spread of deadly diseases such as diarrhea and COVID-19. Eating before washing hands creates pathways for germs into the human body. Through this, an interruption of normal digestion is realized leading to this illness which is dangerous to these learners. Alternatively, it may lead to the accumulation of germs in common surfaces surrounding the living environment like the door grills, tables, playing objects, and window grills. Interaction with other learners leads to the spread of germs through contact. The COVID-19 pandemic is another common deficit associated with inadequate washing of hands. The germs easily navigate from one individual to another hence increasing the number of deaths in the global society. To avoid this increase, learners with ASD should be educated on the need to frequently wash their hands with running water.

Respiratory diseases are likely to emerge due to the failure to wash hands. This occurs when the learners affected with ASD touch their eyes, nose, and mouth creating passages for the germs. As a result, they interfere with the functioning of these organs leading to defects and conditions which require medical attention. People are therefore advised to avoid touching their critical body parts without any consent. Touching foods such as fruits without cleaning hands leads to stomach upsets. Germs are carried to the stomach and upon interacting with other body fluids, they multiply and lead to complications. Failure to observe hygiene in terms of hand washing leads to negative impacts on the target group. Firstly, there is an outbreak of disease that affects their performance in school, work, and society. Learners with ASD who are affected with these diseases develop low concentration in class leading to poor memory and retention of knowledge and skills. On the other hand, adolescents in higher levels of education drop out failing to fulfill their career desires. This contributes to the increased unskilled workforce which affects the general quality of life since there is insufficient money to fulfill the daily needs. Struggles to get basic needs lead to high poverty levels affecting the economy of a country.

Educating learners with ASD on the skill of hand washing is important to them in a variety of ways. They become responsible for their health by maintaining high hygiene levels in and outside school. The ability to practice this aspect of health in their daily life while in school makes them responsible individuals in society. Most importantly, the acquired knowledge and skills are applied in a society where the members are educated on the need to keep their hands clean in all circumstances. The number of admitted patients in the hospital reduces drastically since they take earlier preventive measures so that they do not contact hospital acquire diseases. Healthy learners stay in school for a long time, hence improving their performance. In universities, learners spend most of their time in school sharpening their skills which helps them secure future jobs. After getting their salary, they can live lives of their choice.


AUT 540 M8

AUT 540 M8 Handwashing Literature Review.

Nhazanu Yekeh Pessima

Graduate School College of Education, Endicott College,


Professor. Gloria Satriale

July 23, 2023

Applies Project: Hand Washing

The targeted skill was handwashing, and a variety of interventions will be used while teaching the skill. Hand washing involves the use of soap and running water to kill the accumulated germs likely to cause disease. According to (Praiwa and Negara, 2022) “Washing hands with soap can kill 73% of germs and is more effective at killing germs than using a hand sanitizer which only kills 60% of germs “. This skill is implemented because of continuous training of the young school-going children where they must be educated on how to perform it. Further, in a school setup, there should be available facilities such as taps that have been installed safely for easy access. The teachers in the school environment should offer the necessary support to learners who have not yet mastered the skill for efficiency. They should encourage the students to adopt the habit of washing hands after visiting the toilet, playing, and before eating meals. Research conducted implies that inadequate skills and knowledge in elementary schools are a result of inadequate training from the relevant authorities.

Hand-washing skills are effective when the application of detergents that kill germs is used. For instance, liquid soaps which contain some chemicals for killing germs are advisable. In a school setup, the Ministry of health in various countries has made efforts to provide learners with the required resources (Lao et al., 2023). This has reduced the number of students admitted to hospitals due to diseases like diarrhea. They have spent more time in school, hence concentrating and as a result, improved performance has been realized. Institutions that have developed and implemented the use of technology can use automated machines to wash their hands. Since the emergency of the COVID-19 pandemic globally, most individuals have died due to the disease. However, handwashing techniques were invented to deal with preventive measures. In this intervention, blended learning has been realized with practical accompany theory learning. A machine that has an IR sensor component that can automatically switch on and off is used. The presence of the hand influences the working of the device. This has made work easier and save time for learners in school. “In demonstrating the tool there is a percentage of students with a positive response where as many as 14 students state very good with a percentage of 66.67%, and as many as 4 people state good with a presentation of 19% and as many as 3 people state quite well with a percentage of 14% (Satria e al., 2022). “This has demonstrated the need to adopt current technology in making work easier and timesaving.

The final step for handwashing is drying the hands to remove excess water which may make one uncomfortable. According to (Gião and Vardoulakis, 2022) “Effective hand drying is an important part of hand hygiene that can reduce the risk of infectious disease transmission through cross-contamination of surfaces by wet hands.” While at school, learners can be guided on how to improvise hand-drying items by using locally available materials to save on expenses. Additionally, parents should make some efforts to purchase the items if they are in a position to do so. The research conducted performed a practical demonstration to examine the impact of using different hand dryers. Results implied that bacteria and aerosol concentration increase when individuals under the controlled experiment enter and wash their hands. Further, an increase was realized during the hand drying procedure. A preference was made for jet hair dryers when compared to towel ones. A proper method of washing hands aims at removing the accumulated germs and bacteria which are harmful to the human body.


Gião, M. S., & Vardoulakis, S. (2022). Aerosols and bacteria from hand washing and drying in indoor air.  Frontiers in Public Health10, 804825.

Lao, C. K., Li, X., Zhao, N., Gou, M., & Zhou, G. (2023). Using the health action process approach to predict facemask use and hand washing in the early stages of the COVID-19 pandemic in China.  Current Psychology42(8), 6484-6493.

Pratiwi, E., & Negara, C. K. (2022). The Effect of Health Education Of Children’s Song Animations On Knowledge Of Hand Washing With Soap (Ctps) School Age Children During The Covid-19 Pandemic In Gembolngawi Village.  Journal Of Educations1(1).

Satria, H., Nasution, M., Mungkin, M., Anisa, Y., & Hardinata, A. (2022). Design and Demonstration of the Use of Automatic Hand Washing Sink Technology in Covid-19 Pandemic Conditions.  International Journal of Education, Information Technology, and Others5(2), 127-132.

Siregar, M. F., & Imam, C. (2022). Design Of Automatic Hand Washing System Using Solenoid Valve Based on Microcontroller.  INFOKUM10(03), 20-25. Plagiarism Free Papers

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