Identify ethical issues that could occur in your research study, and consider how you will avoid them. Discuss how ethical standards will protect any human subjects who partici


Ethical Considerations

Identify ethical issues that could occur in your research study, and consider how you will avoid them. Discuss how ethical standards will protect any human subjects who participate in your research study, and include information from the Belmont Report that supports your thoughts (remember, this is a hypothetical research study that you will not conduct).This assignment should be written in two pages (page count does not include title and references pages). Please adhere to APA Style when creating citations and references for this assignment. APA formatting, however, is not necessary. 


Public Health Research

Jasmine Fields

Columbia Southern University

PUH 6301 Public Health Research

Dr. Lakina Moseley

February 28, 2023

Vaccine Hesitancy and its Impact on Public Health

I am interested in exploring the topic of vaccine hesitancy and its impact on public health. Vaccine hesitancy refers to the reluctance or refusal to vaccinate despite the availability of vaccines. This issue has gained significant attention in recent years, particularly considering the COVID-19 pandemic and the urgent need for vaccination to protect individuals and communities from the spread of the virus. Vaccine hesitancy is a complex issue that can arise from a variety of factors, including misinformation, lack of trust in the healthcare system, and cultural or religious beliefs. It can lead to decreased vaccination rates, which in turn can contribute to the resurgence of preventable diseases and other public health threats. Research on vaccine hesitancy is critical in developing effective strategies to address this issue and improve vaccination rates. Studies can help identify the reasons for vaccine hesitancy, as well as the most effective ways to communicate with hesitant individuals and promote vaccine acceptance (Troiano & Nardi, 2021). I believe that understanding the root causes of vaccine hesitancy and finding effective solutions to address it is essential for promoting public health and preventing the spread of infectious diseases. Through my research, I hope to contribute to the development of evidence-based approaches to increase vaccine acceptance and improve public health outcomes.

Reasons for selecting this topic.

I selected the topic of vaccine hesitancy because it is a pressing issue that has become increasingly relevant in recent years. With the COVID-19 pandemic, the importance of vaccines in protecting public health has become more apparent than ever before. However, there are still many individuals who are hesitant or resistant to getting vaccinated, which poses a significant challenge to efforts to control the spread of the virus. As a public health professional, I believe it is important to understand the factors that contribute to vaccine hesitancy and find ways to address these concerns to promote vaccination and protect public health. Additionally, vaccine hesitancy is a multifaceted issue that intersects with many different aspects of public health and healthcare delivery. It involves issues of trust, access, communication, and cultural beliefs, among others. By studying vaccine hesitancy, I can gain a deeper understanding of how these different factors interact and impact health outcomes. This knowledge can help me become a more effective public health practitioner and contribute to the development of evidence-based interventions to improve vaccination rates and promote public health. Furthermore, the topic of vaccine hesitancy is a highly relevant and timely issue not only in the context of COVID-19, but also in the broader context of global health. Vaccine hesitancy is a major barrier to achieving vaccination goals for other diseases, such as measles, polio, and HPV (Wilson & Wiysonge, 2021).

Research Questions

· What are the main reasons for vaccine hesitancy among different populations, and how can these concerns be effectively addressed through targeted communication and education strategies?

· How do vaccine hesitancy impact vaccination rates and contribute to the spread of infectious diseases, particularly in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic?

· What role do healthcare providers play in addressing vaccine hesitancy, and what are the most effective strategies for increasing vaccine acceptance and addressing concerns among patients?

· How do cultural and religious beliefs influence vaccine hesitancy, and what approaches can be used to address these concerns in a culturally sensitive and respectful manner?

Top of Form

Bottom of Form


Troiano, G., & Nardi, A. (2021). Vaccine hesitancy in the era of COVID-19.  Public health194, 245-251.

Wilson, S. L., & Wiysonge, C. (2020). Social media and vaccine hesitancy.  BMJ global health5(10), e004206.



Public Health Research

Jasmine Fields

Columbia Southern University

PUH 6301 Public Health Research

Dr. Lakina Moseley

March 7, 2023

Vaccine Hesitancy and its Impact on Public Health

Key words

In this perspective, the key words used were “vaccine hesitancy,” “vaccine acceptance,” “anti-vaccination,” “COVID-19,” “social media,” and “public health.” These terms are all related to the topic of vaccine hesitancy and its impact on public health. By searching for articles that include these key terms, I was able to find relevant literature that discussed the various aspects of vaccine hesitancy and its implications on public health.

Sources/ Databases

To locate the three scholarly articles related to vaccine hesitancy, I used various sources and databases. Firstly, I searched for relevant keywords such as “vaccine hesitancy,” “public health,” and “COVID-19” on Google Scholar, a comprehensive database of scholarly literature. I also used PubMed, a free search engine that provides access to MEDLINE, a database of biomedical research articles, to find relevant articles. In addition, I utilized the library database of my academic institution, which includes a variety of scholarly resources such as journals, books, and databases. I specifically searched for articles related to vaccine hesitancy and public health in peer-reviewed journals. Furthermore, I consulted the references section of each article to identify additional sources and databases that could be relevant. By using a combination of these resources, I was able to locate and access the three scholarly articles related to vaccine hesitancy and its impact on public health.

Summary of the three articles

The three scholarly articles on vaccine hesitancy reveal the trends, prospects, and impacts of vaccine hesitancy on public health. Dubé et al. (2021) present an overview of vaccine hesitancy, acceptance, and anti-vaccination movements. The authors observe that vaccine hesitancy is a complex and evolving phenomenon that requires a multifaceted approach to address it. They explore the factors that contribute to vaccine hesitancy, including misinformation, mistrust of authorities, and individual and societal factors (Dube et al., 2021). Troiano and Nardi (2021) focus on vaccine hesitancy during the COVID-19 pandemic. They discuss the factors that have led to vaccine hesitancy during the pandemic, such as the rapid development of vaccines and the politicization of vaccination campaigns. They argue that vaccine hesitancy is a significant public health concern during the pandemic and that addressing it is critical to achieving herd immunity and ending the pandemic. The authors suggest that tailored interventions should address the specific concerns of different groups, such as healthcare workers, older adults, and marginalized populations (Troiano & Nardi, 2021). Wilson and Wiysonge (2020) explore the role of social media in vaccine hesitancy. They argue that social media has contributed to the spread of vaccine hesitancy by allowing the rapid dissemination of misinformation and anti-vaccination messages.

The authors review the evidence on the impact of social media on vaccine hesitancy and highlight the importance of addressing misinformation and promoting accurate information about vaccines (Wiysonge, 2020). Comparing and contrasting these three articles reveals some common themes and differences in their approaches to vaccine hesitancy. All three articles emphasize the importance of tailored interventions that address specific concerns, beliefs, and attitudes towards vaccination. They also highlight the need to address misinformation and mistrust of authorities to build vaccine confidence. However, the articles differ in their focus, with Dubé et al. (2021) providing a broad overview of vaccine hesitancy, while Troiano and Nardi (2021) and Wilson and Wiysonge (2020) focus on vaccine hesitancy during the COVID-19 pandemic and the role of social media in contributing to vaccine hesitancy, respectively.


Dubé, È., Ward, J. K., Verger, P., & MacDonald, N. E. (2021). Vaccine hesitancy, acceptance, and anti-vaccination: trends and future prospects for public health. Annu Rev Public Health, 42(1), 175-91.

Troiano, G., & Nardi, A. (2021). Vaccine hesitancy in the era of COVID-19. Public health, 194, 245-251.

Wilson, S. L., & Wiysonge, C. (2020). Social media and vaccine hesitancy. BMJ global health, 5(10), e004206 Plagiarism Free Papers

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