Lifespan development is a broad topic, covering multiple stages, theories, and critical issues. As we begin the course, do a search for 2 scholarly journal articles related to lifespan

The student will post one thread of at least 250 words, The thread must integrate insight from the textbook and 2 other scholarly sources.  

Lifespan development is a broad topic, covering multiple stages, theories, and critical issues. As we begin the course, do a search for 2 scholarly journal articles related to lifespan. Provide a brief description of these articles and how they relate to the topic of lifespan development as well as the textbook.  

attached are chapters 1 and 2.

Chapter 1

Organizing Themes in Development

Learning Objectives

Mai is a 56-year-old woman who was born to a poor Vietnamese immigrant family in rural California. When Mai was 5, her parents moved the family to a large city where they eventually succeeded in building a stable business that provided an adequate income. Mai was typically quiet and shy, and she had difficulty making friends in elementary school, often feeling left out of her peers’ activities. Her social life improved in adolescence, but she often felt the need to hide her outstanding academic skills to fit in. In college and medical school, Mai felt more accepted for her intellectual prowess and freer to be herself, but she still ruminated at times about what others thought of her, and was plagued by vague anxieties. By her mid-twenties, cyclical problems with depression and anxiety had become a part of her existence. Her marriage at 33 to a scholarly man provided a haven for her, and life seemed calmer and less frightening. After the birth of a son at age 38, Mai again felt overwhelmed by anxiety. The couple struggled to balance the complex needs of a fragile infant with their own careers, and Mai’s husband found her heavy dependence on his attention and calming influence difficult to accommodate. As their son grew, however, the couple handled the balancing act more skillfully. Now, Mai’s child is starting college. Mai is busy with her work and usually finds her anxiety manageable. She continues to view her husband as the steadying force in her life.

Mai’s story raises a host of questions about the influences that have shaped her life. How important was Mai’s early poverty, her cultural background, and her parents’ immigrant status? What was the source of her early social inhibition? Would things have been different for her if her parents had not been able to eventually provide economic stability? Were Mai’s early difficulties forming social relationships just a “stage,” or were they foundational to her later problems with depression and anxiety? Did stereotype threat (expecting to be judged on the basis of ethnicity or gender) play a role? How unusual is it for a married couple to experience increased conflicts following the birth of a child? If Mai and her husband had divorced, would their child have suffered lasting emotional damage? Is Mai’s intellectual ability likely to change as she continues to age? Are her emotional problems likely to increase or decrease? What factors enable any person to overcome early unfavorable experiences and become a successful, healthy adult? And conversely, why do some people who do well as children experience emotional or behavioral problems as adults? These intriguing questions represent a sampling of the kinds of topics that developmental scientists tackle. Their goal is to understand life span development: human behavioral change from conception to death. “Behavioral” change refers broadly to change in both observable activity (e.g., from crawling to walking) and mental activity (e.g., from disorganized to logical thinking). More specifically, developmental science seeks to

· describe people’s behavioral characteristics at different ages,

· identify how people are likely to respond to life’s experiences at different ages,

· formulate theories that explain how and why we see the typical characteristics and responses that we do,

· understand what factors contribute to developmental differences from one person to another, and

· understand how behavior is influenced by cultural context and by changes in culture across generations.

· Using an array of scientific tools designed to obtain objective (unbiased) information, developmentalists make careful observations and measurements, and they test theoretical explanations empirically. The Appendix, A Practitioner’s Guide to the Methods of Developmental Science, provides a guide to these techniques. An understanding of the processes that lead to objective knowledge will help you evaluate new information from any source as you move forward in your career as a practitioner.

· Developmental science is not a remote or esoteric body of knowledge. Rather, it has much to offer helping professionals in both their careers and their personal lives. As you study developmental science, you will build a knowledge base of information about age-related behaviors and about causal theories that help organize and make sense of these behaviors. These tools will help you better understand client concerns that are rooted in shared human experience. And when you think about clients’ problems from a developmental perspective, you will increase the range of problem-solving strategies that you can offer. Finally, studying development can facilitate personal growth by providing a foundation for reflecting on your own life.

Reflection and Action

1. 1.1 Explain the role of developmental science (research and theory) in the problem-solving processes of reflective practitioners.

Despite strong support for a comprehensive academic grounding in scientific developmental knowledge for helping professionals (e.g., Van Hesteren & Ivey, 1990), there has been a somewhat uneasy alliance between practitioners, such as mental health professionals, and those with a more empirical bent, such as behavioral scientists. The clinical fields have depended on research from developmental psychology to inform their practice. Yet in the past, overreliance on traditional experimental methodologies sometimes resulted in researchers’ neglect of important issues that could not be studied using these rigorous methods (Hetherington, 1998). Consequently, there was a tendency for clinicians to perceive some behavioral science literature as irrelevant to real-world concerns (Turner, 1986).

Clearly, the gap between science and practice is not unique to the mental health professions. Medicine, education, and law have all struggled with the problems involved in preparing students to grapple with the complex demands of the workplace. Contemporary debate on this issue has led to the development of serious alternative paradigms for the training of practitioners.

One of the most promising of these alternatives for helping professionals is the concept of reflective practice. The idea of “reflectivity” derives from Dewey’s (1933/1998) view of education, which emphasized careful consideration of one’s beliefs and forms of knowledge as a precursor to practice. Donald Schon (1987), a pioneer in the field of reflective practice, describes the problem this way:

In the varied topography of professional practice, there is a high, hard ground overlooking a swamp. On the high ground, manageable problems lend themselves to solution through the application of research-based theory and technique. In the swampy lowland, messy confusing problems defy technical solutions. The irony of this situation is that the problems of the high ground tend to be relatively unimportant to individuals or society at large, however great their technical interest may be, while in the swamp lie the problems of greatest human concern. (p. 3)

The Gap Between Science and Practice

Traditionally, the modern, university-based educational process has been driven by the belief that problems can be solved best by applying objective, technical, or scientific information amassed from laboratory investigations. Implicit in this assumption is that human nature operates according to universal principles that, if known and understood, will enable us to predict behavior.

For example, if I understand the principles of conditioning and reinforcement, I can apply a contingency contract to modify my client’s inappropriate behavior. Postmodern critics have pointed out the many difficulties associated with this approach. Sometimes a “problem” behavior is related to, or maintained by, neurological, systemic, or cultural conditions. Sometimes the very existence of a problem may be a cultural construction. Unless a problem is viewed within its larger context, a problem-solving strategy may prove ineffective.

Most of the situations helpers face are confusing, complex, ill defined, and often unresponsive to the application of a simple, specific set of scientific principles. Thus, the training of helping professionals often involves a “dual curriculum.” The first is more formal and may be presented as a conglomeration of research-based facts, whereas the second, often learned in a practicum, field placement, or first job, covers the curriculum of “what is really done” when working with clients. Unfortunately, some practitioners lose sight of the value of research-based knowledge in this process. The antidote to this dichotomous pedagogy, Schon (1987) and his followers suggest, is reflective practice. This is a creative method of thinking about practice in which the helper masters the knowledge and skills base pertinent to the profession but is encouraged to go beyond rote technical applications to generate new kinds of understanding and strategies of action. Rather than relying solely on objective technical applications to determine ways of operating in a given situation, the reflective practitioner constructs solutions to problems by engaging in personal hypothesis generating and hypothesis testing. Reflective practices are now used across a wide range of helping professions, from counseling and psychology to education to medicine and nursing (Curtis, Elkins, Duran, & Venta, 2016).

How can you use the knowledge of developmental science in a meaningful and reflective way? What place does it have in the process of reflective construction? A consideration of another important line of research, namely, that of characteristics of expert problem solvers, will help us answer this question. Research studies on expert–novice differences in many areas such as teaching, science, and athletics all support the contention that experts have a great store of knowledge and skill in a particular area. Expertise is domain-specific. When compared to novices in any given field, experts possess well-organized and integrated stores of information that they draw on, almost automatically, when faced with novel challenges. Because this knowledge is well practiced, truly a “working body” of information, retrieval is relatively easy (Lewandowsky & Thomas, 2009). Progress in problem solving is closely self-monitored. Problems are analyzed and broken down into smaller units, which can be handled more efficiently.

If we apply this information to the reflective practice model, you will see some connections. One core condition of reflective practice is that practitioners use theory as a “partial lens through which to consider a problem” (Nelson & Neufelt, 1998). Practitioners also use another partial lens: their professional and other life experience. In reflective practice, theory-driven hypotheses about client and system problems are generated and tested for goodness of fit.

A rich supply of problem-solving strategies depends on a deep understanding of and thorough grounding in fundamental knowledge germane to the field. Notice that there is a sequence to reflective practice. Schon (1987), for example, argues against putting the cart before the horse. He states that true reflectivity depends on the ability to “recognize and apply standard rules, facts and operations; then to reason from general rules to problematic cases in ways characteristic of the profession; and only then to develop and test new forms of understanding and action where familiar categories and ways of thinking fail” (p. 40). In other words, background knowledge is important, but it is most useful in a dynamic interaction with contextual applications. The most effective helpers can shift flexibly between the “big picture” that their knowledge base provides and the unique problems and contexts that they confront in practice (Ferreira, Basseches, & Vasco, 2016). A working knowledge of human development supplies the helping professional with a firm base from which to proceed.

Given the relevance of background knowledge to expertise in helping and to reflective practice, we hope we have made a sufficiently convincing case for the study of developmental science. However, it is obvious that students approaching this study are not “blank slates.” You already have many ideas and theories about the ways that people grow and change. These implicit theories have been constructed over time, partly from personal experience, observation, and your own cultural “take” on situations. Dweck and her colleagues have demonstrated that reliably different interpretations of situations can be predicted based on individual differences in people’s implicit beliefs about certain human attributes, such as intelligence or personality (see Dweck, 2006, 2017). Take the case of intelligence. If you happen to hold the implicit belief that a person’s intellectual capacity can change and improve over time, you might be more inclined to take a skill-building approach to some presenting problem involving knowledge or ability. However, if you espouse the belief that a person’s intelligence is fixed and not amenable to incremental improvement, possibly because of genetic inheritance, you might be more likely to encourage a client to cope with and adjust to cognitive limitations. For helping professionals, the implicit theoretical lens that shapes their worldview can have important implications for their clients.

We are often reluctant to give up our personal theories even in the face of evidence that these theories are incorrect (Lewandowsky & Oberauer, 2016; Rousseau & Gunia, 2016). The critical thinking that reflective practice requires can be impaired for many reasons, especially if we are busy and feel overwhelmed by the demands of the moment. The best antidote to misapplication of our personal views is self-monitoring: being aware of what our theories are and recognizing that they are only one of a set of possibilities. (See Chapter 11 for a more extensive discussion of this issue.) Before we discuss some specific beliefs about the nature of development, take a few minutes to consider what you think about the questions posed in Box 1.1.

A Historical Perspective on Developmental Theories

1. 1.2 Identify distinguishing characteristics and core issues of classic theoretical approaches in developmental science, particularly classic stage theories and incremental theories.

Now that you have examined some of your own developmental assumptions, let’s consider the theoretical views that influence developmentalists, with special attention to how these views have evolved through the history of developmental science. Later, we will examine how different theoretical approaches might affect the helping process.

Like you, developmental scientists bring to their studies theoretical assumptions that help to structure their understanding of known facts. These assumptions also guide their research and shape how they interpret new findings. Scientists tend to develop theories that are consistent with their own cultural background and experience; no one operates in a vacuum. A core value of Western scientific method is a pursuit of objectivity, so that scientists are committed to continuously evaluating their theories in light of evidence. As a consequence, scientific theories change over time. Throughout this text, you will be introduced to many developmental theories. Some are broad and sweeping in their coverage of whole areas of development, such as Freud’s theory of personality development (see Chapters 7 and 8) or Piaget’s theory of cognitive development (see Chapters 3, 6, and 9); some are narrower in scope, focusing on

a particular issue, such as Vygotsky’s theory of the enculturation of knowledge (see Chapter 3) or Bowlby’s attachment theory (see Chapters 4 and 12). You will see that newer theories usually incorporate empirically verified ideas from older theories. Scientific theories of human development began to emerge in Europe and America in the 19th century. They had their roots in philosophical inquiry, in the emergence of biological science, and in the growth of mass education that accompanied industrialization. Throughout medieval times in European societies, children and adults of all ages seem to have been viewed and treated in very similar ways (Aries, 1960). Only infants and preschoolers were free of adult responsibilities, although they were not always given the special protections and nurture that they are today. At age 6 or 7, children took on adult roles, doing farmwork or learning a trade, often leaving their families to become apprentices. As the Industrial Revolution advanced, children worked beside adults in mines and factories. People generally seemed “indifferent to children’s special characteristics” (Crain, 2005, p. 2), and there was no real study of children or how they change. The notion that children only gradually develop the cognitive and personality structures that will characterize them as adults first appeared in the writings of 17th- and 18th-century philosophers, such as John Locke in Great Britain and Jean-Jacques Rousseau in France. In the 19th century, Charles Darwin’s theory of the evolution of species and the growth of biological science helped to foster scholarly interest in children. The assumption grew that a close examination of how children change might help advance our understanding of the human species. Darwin himself introduced an early approach to child study, the “baby biography,” writing a richly detailed account of his young son’s daily changes in language and behavior. By the 18th and 19th centuries, the Industrial Revolution led to the growth of “middle-class” occupations (e.g., merchandizing) that required an academic education: training in reading, writing, and math. The need to educate large numbers of children sharpened the public’s interest in understanding how children change with age. The first academic departments devoted to child study began to appear on American college campuses in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. The idea that development continues even in adulthood was a 20th-century concept and a natural outgrowth of the study of children. If children’s mental and behavioral processes change over time, perhaps such processes continue to evolve beyond childhood. Interest in adult development was also piqued by dramatic increases in life expectancy in the 19th and 20th centuries, as well as cultural changes in how people live. Instead of single households combining three or four generations of family members, grandparents and other relatives began to live apart from “nuclear families,” so that understanding the special needs and experiences of each age group took on greater importance. Most classic developmental theories emerged during the early and middle decades of the 20th century. Contemporary theories integrate ideas from many classic theories, as well as from other disciplines: modern genetics, neuroscience, cognitive science, psycholinguistics, anthropology, and social and cultural psychology. They acknowledge that human development is a complex synthesis of diverse processes at multiple levels of functioning. Because they embrace complexity, contemporary developmental theories can be especially useful to helping professionals (Melchert, 2016). See the timeline in Figure 1.1 for a graphic summary of some of the key theories and ideas in the history of developmental science.

You can expect that the most up-to-date theories you read about in this text will continue to change in the future, because theoretical ideas evolve as research testing them either supports or does not support them. But theories are also likely to need adjusting because global shifts in immigration patterns, climate, and access to technology and information are likely to modify behavior and perhaps even some of the processes that govern the development of behavior. Developmental theories must accommodate such changes (Jensen, 2012).

Emphasizing Discontinuity: Classic Stage Theories

Some of the most influential early theories of development described human change as occurring in stages. Imagine a girl when she is 4 months old and then again when she is 4 years old. If your sense is that these two versions of the same child are fundamentally different in kind, with different intellectual capacities, different emotional structures, or different ways of perceiving others, you are thinking like a stage theorist. A stage is a period of time, perhaps several years, during which a person’s activities (at least in one broad domain) have certain characteristics in common. For example, we could say that in language development, the 4-month-old girl is in a preverbal stage: Among other things, her communications share in common the fact that they do not include talking. As a person moves to a different stage, the common characteristics of behavior change. In other words, a person’s activities have similar qualities within stages but different qualities across stages. Also, after long periods of stability, qualitative shifts in behavior seem to happen relatively quickly. For example, the change from not talking to talking seems abrupt or discontinuous. It tends to happen between 12 and 18 months of age, and once it starts, language use seems to advance very rapidly. A 4-year-old is someone who communicates primarily by talking; she is clearly in a verbal stage. The preverbal to verbal example illustrates two features of stage theories. First, they describe development as qualitative or transformational change, like the emergence of a tree from a seed. At each new stage, new forms of behavioral organization are both different from and more complex than the ones at previous stages. Increasing complexity suggests that development has “directionality.” There is a kind of unfolding or emergence of behavioral organization.

Second, they imply periods of relative stability (within stages) and periods of rapid transition (between stages). Metaphorically, development is a staircase. Each new stage lifts a person to a new plateau for some period of time, and then there is another steep rise to another plateau. There seems to be discontinuity in these changes rather than change being a gradual, incremental process.

One person might progress through a stage more quickly or slowly than another, but the sequence of stages is usually seen as the same across cultures and contexts, that is, universal. Also, despite the emphasis on qualitative discontinuities between stages, stage theorists argue for functional continuities across stages. That is, the same processes drive the shifts from stage to stage, such as brain maturation and social experience.

Sigmund Freud’s theory of personality development began to influence developmental science in the early 1900s and was among the first to include a description of stages (e.g., Freud, 1905/1989, 1949/1969). Freud’s theory no longer takes center stage in the interpretations favored by most helping professionals or by developmental scientists. First, there is little evidence for some of the specific proposals in Freud’s theory (Loevinger, 1976).

Second, his theory has been criticized for incorporating the gender biases of early 20th-century Austrian culture. Yet, some of Freud’s broad insights are routinely accepted and incorporated into other theories, such as his emphasis on the importance of early family relationships to infants’ emotional life, his notion that some behavior is unconsciously motivated, and his view that internal conflicts can play a primary role in social functioning. Currently influential theories, like those of Erik Erikson and John Bowlby, incorporated some aspects of Freud’s theories or were developed to contrast with Freud’s ideas. For these reasons, it is important to understand Freud’s theory. Also, his ideas have permeated popular culture, and they influence many of our assumptions about the development of behavior. As you work to make explicit your own implicit assumptions about development, it will help to understand their origins and how well the theories that spawned them stand up in the light of scientific investigation. Freud’s Personality Theory

Sigmund Freud’s psychoanalytic theory both describes the complex functioning of the adult personality and offers an explanation of the processes and progress of its development throughout childhood. To understand any given stage it helps to understand Freud’s view of the fully developed adult.

Id, Ego, and Superego.   According to Freud, the adult personality functions as if there were actually three personalities, or aspects of personality, all potentially in conflict with one another. The first, the id, is the biological self, the source of all psychic energy. Babies are born with an id; the other two aspects of personality develop later. The id blindly pursues the fulfillment of physical needs or “instincts,” such as the hunger drive and the sex drive. It is irrational, driven by the pleasure principle, that is, by the pursuit of gratification. Its function is to keep the individual, and the species, alive, although Freud also proposed that there are inborn aggressive, destructive instincts served by the id.

The ego begins to develop as cognitive and physical skills emerge. In Freud’s view, some psychic energy is invested in these skills, and a rational, realistic self begins to take shape.

The id still presses for fulfillment of bodily needs, but the rational ego seeks to meet these needs in sensible ways that take into account all aspects of a situation. For example, if you were hungry, and you saw a child with an ice cream cone, your id might press you to grab the cone away from the child—an instance of blind, immediate pleasure seeking. Of course, stealing ice cream from a child could have negative consequences if someone else saw you do it or if the child reported you to authorities. Unlike your id, your ego would operate on the reality principle, garnering your understanding of the world and of behavioral consequences to devise a more sensible and self-protective approach, such as waiting until you arrive at the ice cream store yourself and paying for an ice cream cone.

The superego is the last of the three aspects of personality to emerge. Psychic energy is invested in this “internalized parent” during the preschool period as children begin to feel guilty if they behave in ways that are inconsistent with parental restrictions. With the superego in place, the ego must now take account not only of instinctual pressures from the id, and of external realities, but also of the superego’s constraints. It must meet the needs of the id without upsetting the superego to avoid the unpleasant anxiety of guilt. In this view, when you choose against stealing a child’s ice cream cone to meet your immediate hunger, your ego is taking account not only of the realistic problems of getting caught but also of the unpleasant feelings that would be generated by the superego.

The Psychosexual Stages.   In Freud’s view, the complexities of the relationships and conflicts that arise among the id, the ego, and the superego are the result of the individual’s experiences during five developmental stages. Freud called these psychosexual stages because he believed that changes in the id and its energy levels initiated each new stage. The term sexual here applies to all biological instincts or drives and their satisfaction, and it can be broadly defined as “sensual.”

For each stage, Freud posited that a disproportionate amount of id energy is invested in drives satisfied through one part of the body. As a result, the pleasure experienced through that body part is especially great during that stage. Children’s experiences satisfying the especially strong needs that emerge at a given stage can influence the development of personality characteristics throughout life. Freud also thought that parents typically play a pivotal role in helping children achieve the satisfaction they need. For example, in the oral stage, corresponding to the first year of life, Freud argued that the mouth is the body part that provides babies with the most pleasure. Eating, drinking, and even nonnutritive sucking are presumably more satisfying than at other times of life. A baby’s experiences with feeding and other parenting behaviors are likely to affect her oral pleasure, and could influence how much energy she invests in seeking oral pleasure in the future. Suppose that a mother in the early 20th century believed the parenting advice of “experts” who claimed that nonnutritive sucking is bad for babies. To prevent her baby from sucking her thumb, the mother might tie the baby’s hands to the sides of the crib at night—a practice recommended by the same experts! Freudian theory would predict that such extreme denial of oral pleasure could cause an oral fixation: The girl might grow up needing oral pleasures more than most adults, perhaps leading to overeating, to being especially talkative, or to being a chain smoker. The grown woman might also exhibit this fixation in more subtle ways, maintaining behaviors or feelings in adulthood that are particularly characteristic of babies, such as crying easily or experiencing overwhelming feelings of helplessness. According to Freud, fixations at any stage could be the result of either denial of a child’s needs, as in this example, or overindulgence of those needs. Specific defense mechanisms, such as “reaction formation” or “repression,” can also be associated with the conflicts that arise at a particular stage.

In Table 1.1, you will find a summary of the basic characteristics of Freud’s five psychosexual stages. Some of these stages will be described in more detail in later chapters. Freud’s stages have many of the properties of critical (or sensitive) periods for personality development. That is, they are time frames during which certain developments must occur or can most fully form. Freud’s third stage, for example, provides an opportunity for sex typing and moral processes to emerge (see Table 1.1). Notice that Freud assumed that much of personality development occurs before age 5, during the first three stages. This is one of the many ideas from Freud’s theory that has made its way into popular culture, even though modern research clearly does not support this position.

By the mid-1900s, two other major stage theories began to significantly impact the progress of developmental science. The first, by Erik Erikson, was focused on personality development, reshaping some of Freu Plagiarism Free Papers

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