Research two career specializations and two professional organizations. (NOTE: this assignment is due in Unit 2, but is introduced here so you can start working on it). Hi everyone,

Research two career specializations and two professional organizations.

(NOTE: this assignment is due in Unit 2, but is introduced here so you can start working on it).

Hi everyone,

Copy and paste the assignment below and provide your answers below each section.

Read Careers in Psychology (in module 1). Choose two career specializations in different areas of psychology (research; physical and mental health; teaching and student services; social development; business and industry) and two professional organizations related to the career specializations. Complete the following assignment for each career specialization and professional organization:

1. Thoroughly research each career specialization from the reading and reputable online sources:

a. name the career specialization and area it is related to;


b. give a detailed description of the career specialization;


c. describe the education requirements for the career specialization including degrees, licensing, certification, etc.,


d. describe the specific job responsibilities for the career specialization,


e. identify the population of clients,


f. identify the work settings,


g. give the salary range including the source and year,


h. give the future job growth percentage for the career specialization,


2. Thoroughly research a professional organization related to each career specialization:

a. name the organization


b. identify the mission and general information about the organization,


c. list the membership types and fees,


d. describe three benefits of joining the organization


The assignment should be a minimum of 750 – 1000 words. Upload your assignment as a Word document (in Unit 2). Complete each section thoroughly and accurately. Include in-text citations that will connect to your sources’ factual points and include a reference page following APA (7th ed.) format.

Psychologists Conduct Research

Apply Science

Provide Health Care

Teach and Study Learning

Promote Community and Individual Well-Being

Advise Business, Industry, and Policymakers

Make a Difference in the WorlD!





table of contents What Is Psychology? ||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||| 1

Some of the Subfields in Psychology ||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||4

The Job Outlook ||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||| 10

What Psychologists Do and Where They Do It |||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||14

Psychologists Conduct Research ||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||15

Psychologists Study Social Development||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||20

Psychologists Teach and Provide Services to Students |||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||23

Psychologists Promote Physical and Mental Health |||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||| 25

Psychologists Study the Work Environment and Performance Issues ||||||||||||| 35

Getting Ready to Work in Psychology |||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||41

APA Resources for Students ||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||46


Learn More About Psychology @

Copyright © 2011 by the American Psychological Association. This material

may be reproduced in whole or in part without fees or permission provided that

acknowledgment is given to the American Psychological Association. This material may

not be reprinted, translated, or distributed electronically without prior permission in

writing from the publisher. For permission, contact APA, Rights and Permissions, 750

First Street, NE, Washington, DC 20002-4242.

Available online at:

December 2011

What is psychology?

W hy people do the things they do is an age-old question. However,

psychology—the science concerned with behavior, in both

human and nonhuman animals—first appeared in the 1870s.

Despite its youth, it is a broad discipline, essentially spanning

subject matter from biology to sociology. Psychologists have doctoral degrees.

They study the intersection of two critical relationships: one between brain

function and behavior, and another between the environment and behavior. As

scientists, psychologists follow scientific methods, using careful observation,

experimentation, and analysis. But psychologists also need to be creative in the

way they apply scientific findings.

Psychologists frequently are innovators, evolving new approaches from

established knowledge to meet the changing needs of people, organizations,

and societies. They develop theories and test them through their research. As

this research yields new information, these findings become part of the body of

knowledge that practitioners call on in their work with clients and patients, as

well as with organizations and communities. Psychology is a tremendously varied

field. Psychologists conduct both basic and applied research, serve as consultants

to communities and organizations, diagnose and treat people, and teach future

psychologists and those who will pursue other disciplines. They test intelligence

and personality. Many psychologists work as health care providers. They assess

behavioral and mental function and well-being, study how human beings relate

to each other and also to machines, and work to improve these relationships. And

because the United States is undergoing sizable change in its population makeup,

psychologists provide important knowledge and skills to help better understand

diverse cultures.

Many psychologists work independently and also team up with other

professionals—for example, with other scientists, physicians, lawyers, school

personnel, computer experts, engineers, policymakers, and managers—to

contribute to every area of society. Thus, we find them in laboratories, hospitals,

courtrooms, schools and universities, community health centers, prisons, and

corporate offices.

Psychologists traditionally study both normal and abnormal functioning and

treat individuals with mental and emotional problems. They also concentrate on

behaviors that affect the mental and emotional health and mental functioning

of healthy human beings. For example, psychologists work with patients to help

What is Psychology?

2 3What is psychology?careers in psychology

them change behaviors that are having negative effects on their physical health.

They work with business executives, performers, and athletes to reduce stress

and improve performance. They advise lawyers on jury selection and collaborate

with educators on school reform. Immediately following a disaster, such as a

plane crash or bombing, psychologists help victims and bystanders recover from

the trauma, or shock, of the event. They team with law enforcement and public

health officials to analyze the causes of such events and prevent their recurrence.

Involved in all aspects of our fast-paced world, psychologists must keep up with

what’s happening all around us. When you’re a psychologist, your education

never ends.

As has long been true, opportunities in psychology for those with graduate

degrees will be more plentiful and at a higher level than for those with

undergraduate degrees. An undergraduate degree remains excellent preparation

for continued graduate work in psychology or in another field, such as business,

medicine, or computer science. Many employers are interested in the skills that

psychology majors bring to collecting, analyzing, and interpreting data and their

experience with statistics and experimental design.

Opportunities for people with advanced degrees in psychology are expanding

in number as well as in scope. The move toward preventing illness rather than

merely diagnosing and treating it requires people to learn how to make healthy

behavior a routine part of living. Indeed, many of the problems facing society

today are problems of behavior—for example, chronic health conditions or

disease, drug addiction, poor personal relationships, violence at home and in

the street, and the harm we do to our environment. Psychologists contribute

solutions to problems through careful collection of data, analysis of data, and

development of intervention strategies—in other words, by applying scientific

principles, the hallmark of psychology.

In addition, an aging America is leading to more research and practice

in adapting our homes and workplaces for older people. The promises of the

electronic revolution demand more user-friendly technologies and training.

More two-career families in the workplace spur employers to accommodate the

needs of families. Psychologists are helping to make the changes that are needed.

The diversity in America today calls for psychologists to develop and refine

treatments and approaches to meet the unique needs of different racial and

ethnic groups. Furthermore, research advances in learning and memory, and the

integration of physical and mental health care, make psychology more exciting

than ever.

Most psychologists say they love their work. They cite the variety of daily

tasks and the flexibility of their schedules. They are thrilled by the exciting

changes taking place in the field—from adapting technology to benefit humans,

to working as part of primary health care teams. They are endeavoring to provide

answers to research questions in such diverse areas as prevention, perception,

and learning, and they are using new technology and knowledge to train the next

generation. It is an exciting time to be a psychologist.Most psychologists say they love their work. They cite the variety of daily tasks and the flexibility of their schedules. They are thrilled by the exciting changes taking place in the field—from adapting technology to benefit humans, to working as part of primary health care teams.

4 5careers in psychology subfields in psychology

P sychologists specialize in a host of different areas within the field and

identify themselves by many different labels. A sampling of those

focal areas is presented here to give you an idea of the breadth of

psychology’s scholarship and applications.

The field of psychology encompasses both research, through which we

learn fundamental things about human and nonhuman animal behavior, and

practice, through which that knowledge is applied to solving problems and

promoting healthy human development. In each of the subfields, there are

psychologists who work primarily as researchers, others who work primarily

as practitioners, and many who do both (scientist–practitioners). Indeed, one

of psychology’s most unique and important characteristics is its coupling of

science and practice, which stimulates the continual advancement of both.

Additionally, many psychologists teach psychology in academic institutions,

from high schools to graduate programs in universities.

Clinical psychologists assess and treat mental, emotional, and behavioral

disorders. These range from short-term crises, such as difficulties resulting

from adolescent conflicts, to more severe, chronic conditions, such as

schizophrenia. Some clinical psychologists treat specific problems exclusively,

such as phobias or clinical depression. Others focus on specific populations—

for instance, youths; familes or couples; ethnic minority groups; gay, lesbian,

bisexual, and transgender individuals; or older people. They also consult with

physicians on physical problems that have underlying psychological causes.

Cognitive and perceptual psychologists study human perception,

thinking, and memory. Cognitive psychologists are interested in questions

such as how the mind represents reality, how people learn, and how people

understand and produce language. Cognitive psychologists also study

reasoning, judgment, and decision making. Cognitive and perceptual

psychologists frequently collaborate with behavioral neuroscientists to

understand the biological bases of perception or cognition or with researchers

in other areas of psychology to better understand the cognitive biases in the

thinking of people with depression, for example.

Community psychologists work to strengthen the abilities of communities,

settings, organizations, and broader social systems to meet people’s needs.

They help people access resources and collaborate with others to improve

their lives and communities. Instead of helping individuals cope with negative

circumstances (e.g., trauma, poverty), community psychologists help empower

people to change those circumstances, prevent problems, and develop stronger

communities. Examples of community psychology interventions include

improving support for hurricane victims, partnering with neighborhoods to

prevent crime, collaborating with schools to prevent bullying, and helping

change policies to improve health outcomes. Community psychologists blend

research and practice, partnering with diverse citizens to plan and implement

community changes, advance social justice, and use research to inform and

evaluate this work.

Counseling psychologists help people recognize their strengths and

resources to cope with everyday problems and serious adversity. They do

counseling/psychotherapy, teaching, and scientific research with individuals

of all ages, families, and organizations (e.g., schools, hospitals, businesses).

Counseling psychologists help people understand and take action on career and

work problems, they pay attention to how problems and people differ across

the life span, and they have great respect for the influence of differences among

people (such as race, gender, sexual orientation, religion, disability status) on

psychological well-being. They believe that behavior is affected by many things,

including qualities of the individual (e.g., psychological, physical, or spiritual

factors) and factors in the person’s environment (e.g., family, society, and

cultural groups).

Developmental psychologists study the psychological development of

the human being that takes place throughout life. Until recently, the primary

focus was on childhood and adolescence, the most formative years. But as life

expectancy in this country approaches 80 years, developmental psychologists

are becoming increasingly interested in aging, especially in researching and

developing ways to help older people stay as independent as possible.

Educational psychologists concentrate on how effective teaching and

learning take place. They consider a variety of factors, such as human abilities,

student motivation, and the effect on the classroom of the diverse races,

ethnicities, and cultures that make up America.

soMe of the subfielDs in Psychology

6 7careers in psychology subfields in psychology

Engineering psychologists conduct research on how people work best with

machines. For example, how can a computer be designed to prevent fatigue and

eye strain in people? What arrangement of an assembly line makes production

most efficient? What is a reasonable workload? Most engineering psychologists

work in industry, but some are employed by the government, particularly the

Department of Defense. They are often known as human factors specialists.

Environmental psychologists study the dynamics of person–environment

interactions. They define the term environment very broadly, including all that

is natural on the planet as well as built environments, social settings, cultural

groups, and informational environments. They examine behavior evolving at

various scales and from various processes (e.g., localization, globalization).

They have a broad and inherently multidisciplinary focus. They recognize

the need to be problem oriented, coordinating as needed with researchers

and practitioners in the other fields of psychology, in related disciplines (e.g.,

sociology, anthropology, biology, ecology), as well as in the design fields

(e.g., regional, urban, and community planning; landscape architecture;

architecture; and engineering).

Environmental psychologists explore such issues as common property

resource management, the effect of environmental stress on human

effectiveness and well-being, the characteristics of restorative environments,

and human information processing. They also foster conservation behavior,

helping people to craft durable behavioral responses to emerging biophysical


Evolutionary psychologists study how evolutionary principles such as

mutation, adaptation, and selective fitness influence human thought, feeling,

and behavior. Because of their focus on genetically shaped behaviors that

influence an organism’s chances of survival, evolutionary psychologists study

mating, aggression, helping behavior, and communication. Evolutionary

psychologists are particularly interested in paradoxes and problems of

evolution. For example, some behaviors that were highly adaptive in our

evolutionary past may no longer be adaptive in the modern world.

Experimental psychologists are interested in a wide range of psychological

phenomena, including cognitive processes, comparative psychology (cross-

species comparisons), and learning and conditioning. They study both

human and nonhuman animals with respect to their abilities to detect what is

happening in a particular environment and to acquire and maintain responses

to what is happening.

Experimental psychologists work with the empirical method (collecting

data) and the manipulation of variables within the laboratory as a way of

understanding certain phenomena and advancing scientific knowledge. In

addition to working in academic settings, experimental psychologists work in

places as diverse as manufacturing settings, zoos, and engineering firms.

Forensic psychologists apply psychological principles to legal issues. Their

expertise is often essential within the judicial system. They can, for example,

help a judge decide which parent should have custody of a child or evaluate

a defendant’s mental competence to stand trial. Forensic psychologists also

conduct research on jury behavior or eyewitness testimony. Some forensic

psychologists are trained in both psychology and the law.

Health psychologists specialize in how biological, psychological, and social

factors affect health and illness. They study how patients handle illness, why

some people don’t follow medical advice, and the most effective ways to control

pain or change poor health habits. They also develop health care strategies that

foster emotional and physical well-being.

Health psychologists team up with other health care professionals in

independent practice and in hospitals to provide patients with complete health

care. They educate health care professionals about psychological problems

that arise from the pain and stress of illness and about symptoms that may

seem to be physical in origin but actually have psychological causes. They

also investigate issues that affect a large segment of society and develop and

implement programs to deal with these problems. Examples include teenage

pregnancy, substance abuse, risky sexual behaviors, smoking, lack of exercise,

and poor diet.

Industrial/organizational (I/O) psychologists apply psychological

principles and research methods to the workplace in the interest of improving

productivity, health, and the quality of work life. Many serve as human

resources specialists, helping organizations with staffing, training, and

employee development. They may provide employers with testing and other

valid selection procedures in their hiring and promotion processes. Others

work as management consultants in such areas as strategic planning, quality

management, and coping with organizational change.

Neuropsychologists (and behavioral neuropsychologists) explore the

relationships between brain systems and behavior. For example, behavioral

neuropsychologists may study the way the brain creates and stores memories,

8 9careers in psychology subfields in psychology

or how various diseases and injuries of the brain affect emotion, perception,

and behavior. They design tasks to study normal brain functions with imaging

techniques such as positron emission tomography (PET), single photon

emission computed tomography (SPECT), and functional magnetic resonance

imaging (fMRI).

Clinical neuropsychologists also assess and treat people. And with the

dramatic increase in the number of survivors of traumatic brain injury,

neuropsychologists are working with health care teams to help brain-injured

people resume productive lives.

Quantitative and measurement psychologists focus on methods and

techniques for designing experiments and analyzing psychological data. Some

develop new methods for performing analyses; others create research strategies

to assess the effect of social and educational programs and psychological

treatment. They develop and evaluate mathematical models for psychological

tests. They also propose methods for evaluating the quality and fairness of the


Rehabilitation psychologists work with stroke and accident victims, people

with intellectual disabilities, and those with developmental disabilities caused

by such conditions as cerebral palsy, epilepsy, and autism. They help clients

adapt to their situation and improve their lives, and they frequently work with

other health care professionals. They deal with issues of personal adjustment,

interpersonal relations, the work world, and pain management.

Rehabilitation psychologists are also involved in public health programs to

prevent disabilities, including those caused by violence and substance abuse.

And they testify in court as expert witnesses about the causes and effects of a

disability and a person’s rehabilitation needs.

School psychologists are engaged in the delivery of comprehensive

psychological services to children, adolescents, and families in schools and

other applied settings. They assess and counsel students, consult with parents

and school staff, and conduct behavioral interventions when appropriate. Most

school districts employ psychologists full time.

Social psychologists study how a person’s mental life and behavior are

shaped by interactions with other people. They are interested in all aspects of

interpersonal relationships, including both individual and group influences,

and seek ways to improve such interactions. For example, their research helps

us understand how people form attitudes toward others and, when these are

harmful—as in the case of prejudice—provides insight into ways to change


Social psychologists are found in a variety of settings, from academic

institutions (where they teach and conduct research), to advertising agencies

(where they study consumer attitudes and preferences), to businesses

and government agencies (where they help with a variety of problems in

organization and management).

Sport psychologists help athletes refine their focus on competition goals,

become more motivated, and learn to deal with the anxiety and fear of failure

that often accompany competition. The field is growing as sports of all kinds

become more competitive and attract younger children.

10 11careers in psychology the Job outlook

the Job outlook

P sychology graduates generally report being pleased that what they

studied in school has helped prepare them for both life and work.

As a woman who opened her own business shortly after earning

a baccalaureate in psychology stated, “After all, psychology is the

business of life.” Although the majority of those with bachelor’s degrees in

psychology work in areas other than psychology, they continue to be excited by

the changes taking place in the field that relate to what they are now doing.

The U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS, 2011) expects that opportunities in

psychology will continue to grow over the next decade. “Job prospects should be

the best for people who have a doctoral degree from a leading university in . . . [a]

field such as clinical, counseling, or health, and those with a specialist or doctoral

degree in school psychology. . . . Employment will grow because of increased

demand for psychological services in schools, hospitals, social service agencies,

mental health centers, substance abuse treatment clinics, consulting firms, and

private companies.” The push to place health service provider psychologists in

community health clinics and as core participants in health care practices will

provide opportunities. Psychologists are also needed to work with an aging

population and one that is diversifying rapidly.

According to the BLS (2011), “the demand for school psychologists will be

driven by a growing awareness of how students’ mental health and behavioral

problems, such as bullying, affect learning. School psychologists will be needed

for general student counseling on a variety of other issues, including working

with students with disabilities or with special needs, tackling drug abuse, and

consulting and managing personal crisis.”

Although psychologists may compete with providers from other disciplines

such as psychiatry, clinical nursing, social work, and counseling, “clinical

psychologists will continue to be needed to help with the rising health care costs

associated with unhealthy lifestyles, such as smoking, alcoholism, and obesity,

which have made prevention and treatment more critical. There also will be

increased need for psychologists to work with returning veterans” (BLS, 2011).

The BLS also states that “industrial-organizational psychologists can help

employers understand their organization Plagiarism Free Papers

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