Select a publication or a newspaper article on a pathogen, apply knowledge learned in BIOS242, and write a paper. The goal for this project is: to make connections



Select a publication or a newspaper article on a pathogen, apply knowledge learned in BIOS242, and write a paper.

The goal for this project is:

  • to make connections between concepts learned in the course and what is observed in a health care setting
  • to understand real-life applications of Microbiology

Project Parameters:
For this assignment, you will identify a pathogen in a newspaper article or publication of your choice, apply principles learned in BIOS 242, and research the pathogen for its connection to nursing/health care. You must get approval for your chosen article and pathogen. You will then write a paper on their chosen pathogen/topic. Use the template hyperlinked above when writing your paper.

The pathogen can be a bacteria, fungus, protozoa, or virus. In addition to the article, information to include in the paper should include, morphology, gram stain characteristics, virulence factors, susceptibility to antibiotics, host cells, nutritional needs, growth conditions, mechanisms used to evade the immune system and invasion into the host(s), interactions with the hosts and diseases caused and affected body systems. Additionally, students should explain symptoms when the pathogen infects a host, as well as a diagnosis and the therapeutic intervention needed after infection. You may also add information on statistics related to infection (epidemiology) and any new research findings related to the pathogen.


Writing Requirements (APA format)

  • Length: 2 pages (not including title page or references page) 
  • 1-inch margin
  • Double spaced
  • 12-point Times New Roman font
  • Title page
  • References page (minimum of 2 scholarly sources








Overall summary of the most important details of the article summary and pathogen information. (5-7 sentences)

Article Summary

Summary of approved article in your own words (5-7 sentences)

Pathogen Information

Classification of microorganism- Domain- prokaryote or eukaryote or virus, general characteristics of the family and genus to which this pathogen belongs- for example virus can have different extra cellular or intracellular forms, bacteria can be endospore forming, capsule producing, eukaryotes can have another host. Include how it relates to the information covered in class- which chap number and what was taught.

Cellular/ structural (in case of viruses) characteristics. Add information here about morphology, cellular characteristics, genome (RNA or DNA in case of viruses) and gram stain characteristics, virulence factors. Explain why this information is important. Include how it relates to the information covered in class- which chap number and what was taught.

Susceptibility to antibiotics/ antiviral or antifungals. Describe the class of antimicrobial drug, and why they are effective in destroying these microbes and why is this particular drug more effective based on their structure. What is the mode of action for viral or eukaryotic infection? Antibiotic resistance can also be described here, if applicable to the organism. Include how it relates to the information covered in class- which chap number and what was taught.

Growth conditions. Host cells, nutritional needs, growth conditions. Use the relevant vocabulary discussed in this class: nutritional needs – phototroph, chemotroph, autotroph, heterotroph; growth conditions- barophile, halophile, psychrophile, etc. pathogen like mammals, birds, reptiles or secondary hosts in protozoan parasites. Types of life cycle- lytic or latent. Include how it relates to the information covered in class- which chap number and what was taught.

Evasion of immune system. Describe how it evades the immune system and mode of invasion into the host(s). This should be related to the virulence factors described in cellular characteristics. Include how it relates to the information covered in class- which chap number and what was taught.

Disease(s) caused, symptoms, diagnosis, and therapeutic interventions. Describe interactions with the hosts and diseases caused and body systems that are affected; description of symptoms when the pathogen infects a host; and diagnosis used in clinical setting to identify infection, the principle of dignostic technique and therapeutic intervention needed. Include how it relates to the information covered in class- which chap number and what was taught.



Reference 1 in the current APA format.

Reference 2 in the current APA format.



Causative Agent

Virulence Factors of the Pathogen



Dental caries, gingivitis, periodontal disease

Streptococcus mutans a frequent cause of caries

Porphyromonas gingivalis causes periodontal disease.


Dextran and pili allow biofilm formation on tooth.

Proteases break down gingival tissue.

Caries: holes or pits in the teeth

Periodontal disease: swollen or bleeding gums, gums that are tender to the touch and appear shiny, or gums that appear bright red or red-purple in color, with loose teeth and a foul breath odor.

Diets high in sucrose increase risk of decay.


Peptic Ulcers


Helicobacter pylori


Flagella enable burrowing through stomach lining.

Adhesins facilitate attachment to gastric cells

Urease neutralizes stomach acid.

Abdominal pain


Fecal-oral transmission likely. Stress may worsen ulcer symptoms

Bacterial Gastroenteritis



Presence of bacteria in the stomach

 No particular virulence factors

Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, and cramps

Dysentery produces loose, frequent stool containing mucus and blood.


Associated with contaminated food or water and poor living conditions

Traveler’s Diarrhea

Escherichia coli

Enterotoxins, adhesins, fimbriae, and various toxins (e.g., Shiga-like toxin), Type III secretion system

Diarrhea, nausea, and vomiting



Fecally contaminated food or water

Campylobacter Diarrhea


Campylobacter jejuni (most common cause of bacterial gastroenteritis)

Adhesins, cytotoxins, endotoxin


Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, and cramps

Dysentery produces loose, frequent stool containing mucus and blood.

Confirmed by presence of bacteria in the stool

Chickens are the main source of human infections.

C. diff. (Antimicrobial-Associated) Diarrhea


Clostridium difficile


Antimicrobial use facilitates overgrowth of C. difficile

C. difficile produces two toxins: Toxin A and Toxin B

Watery, foul-smelling bowel movements

Pseudomembranous colitis occurs in severe cases

Byproduct of modern medicine

Any antimicrobial can trigger disease.

Salmonellosis and Typhoid Fever


Salmonella enterica serotypes Enteritidis and Typhimurium 

Bacteria tolerate acidity of stomach and pass to the intestine.

Toxins disrupt numerous cellular activities.

High fever (40°C), headache, muscle and stomach pain, malaise, loss of appetite, rose-colored spots

Typhoid fever acquired by contaminated food or water

Salmonellosis often acquired by consuming contaminated eggs


Vibrio cholerae


Cholera toxin

Type III secretion system

Shiga toxin

“Rice-water” stool

Fecally contaminated water

Bacterial Food Poisoning (Intoxication)


Staphylococcus aureus


Five enterotoxins


Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, cramping


Outbreaks associated with social functions


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