11. Which statement is NOT true about the Founder Effect?
A. It is a form of genetic drift.
B. It produces a high frequency of some rare alleles in a small isolated population.
C. Founding members contain a tiny fraction of the alleles found in the original population.
D. The Founder Effect occurs when a population is subjected to near extinction and then recovers so that only a few alleles are left in survivors.
12. Which statement is NOT true about natural selection?
A. Directional selection occurs when one extreme phenotype is favored over another different extreme phenotype.
B. Stabilizing selection favors an intermediate phenotype over either of the extreme phenotypes.
C. Disruptive selection favors both of the extreme phenotypes over the intermediate phenotype.
D. Directional selection leads to improved selection in a stable environment.
E. Disruptive selection leads to polymorphism, favoring different forms of the same species.
13. The recessive allele for sickle cell anemia is more prevalent in regions of Africa where malaria is prevalent, than it is in regions where there is no malaria. This is due to a:
A. heterozygous advantage
B. Founder Effect
C. frequency dependent selection
D. bottleneck effect
14. What do the Founder Effect and the Bottleneck Effect have in common?
A. Both the Founder Effect and the bottleneck effect result from mutation
B. Both the Founder Effect and the bottleneck effect result from increase gene flow
C. Both the Founder Effect and the bottleneck effect are examples of disruptive selection
D. Both the Founder Effect and the bottleneck effect occur by chance.
15. A certain species of butterfly varies in color from white to dark blue. The birds found in the same area feed on the white or lightly colored butterflies, leaving butterflies that are darkly colored. This may result in what type of selection?
A. stabilizing selection
B. disruptive selection
C. directional selection
16. Which of the following is/are a biological “population?”
A. all of the corn plants in a cornfield
B. all of the variable-colored ladybird beetles of the species Harmonia axyridis in a forest
C. all male and female English sparrows that reside in your community
D. all of the human population of a rural western town
E. All of the choices are correct.
17. If the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium is met, what is the net effect?
A. evolution leading to a population better adapted to an unchanging environment
B. evolution leading to a population better adapted to a changing environment
C. very slow and continuous evolution with no increased adaptation
D. no evolution because the alleles in the population remain the same
18. A student proposes that left-handedness is a recessive trait that is therefore hidden in much of the human population. A survey of a class of 36 students finds that 27 (0.75) are right-handed and 9 (0.25) are left-handed. Using the Hardy-Weinberg formula, what would the expected genotypes and allele frequencies be in this theoretical population?
A. 0.75 homozygous dominant and 0.25 homozygous recessive, and a 3-to-1, right-to-left handed allele ratio in the population.
B. 0.25 homozygous dominant, 0.50 heterozygous, and 0.25 homozygous recessive, and a 0.75 dominant allele frequency and a 0.25 recessive allele frequency.
C. 0.25 homozygous dominant, 0.50 heterozygous, and 0.25 homozygous recessive, and a 0.5 allele frequency for each allele
D. 0.50 homozygous dominant, 0.25 heterozygous, and 0.25 homozygous recessive, and a 0.5 allele frequency for each allele
E. They cannot be estimated using these limited data.
19. If the mutation rate of individual genes is taken to be about one in 100,000 genes per cell cycle across many organisms, we might expect evolution to proceed at a consistent rate for various forms of life. Which factor could make the accumulation of gene mutations faster or slower among different organisms?
A. Organisms with more genes will likely have more mutations per generation.
B. More selection of mutations can occur in a shorter period of time for bacteria that replicate each twenty minutes than for humans with a (roughly) 20-year generation span.
C. Organisms vary in the proportion of DNA that is active and in the percent of loci that have multiple alleles.
D. All of the choices are correct.
20. Our domesticated honey bee—originally from Europe—is slow to sting, requires abundant flower nectar, gets up late in the morning, and stores much honey but only produces enough new brood to swarm once a year. Because the European honey bee was performing poorly as a honey producer in South America, the African subspecies was imported in a breeding experiment. The African honey bee formed small nests, foraged earlier and on smaller nectar sources, produced less honey stores and more brood, swarmed four or five times a year, and was fast to sting. However, when the African queens escaped, the two populations interbred and the African genotype spread several hundred miles north each year. Surprisingly, a hundred miles behind the expanding range of the African honey bees, the European and hybrid strains died out and the bees were essentially 100 percent African. How would this be explained in evolutionary genetics terms?
A. Gene flow is not occurring and therefore these are two separate species.
B. This is a natural consequence of the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium.
C. Obviously the African bee genes are dominant over the European honey bee alleles.
D. Gene flow is occurring between these subspecies but the African bee is ‘ecologically better suited”
E. This can be understood as a classic case of genetic drift.
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