Solved >   11.Why do braided streams form in a:1291512 …


11.Why do braided streams form in a dry climate instead of meandering streams?

a.The stream flows on a broad, flat surface, so it spreads out and braids.

b.The stream has too little water to carry the total sediment supplied.

c.The stream channel is so shallow that the stream flows easily over its banks.

d.Water soaks down to the water table, so it doesn’t ever flow downslope.

e.There are so many channels that they can’t help but cross one another to form a braided pattern.



12.Meander wavelength is NOT correlated with which of the following? width depth

c.radius of curvature

d.length of the meander arc between meanders

e.width of the meander belt



13.If a 100-year floodplain was flooded in 2003, when should we expect the next 100-year flood? year

b.10 years

c.100 years

d.200 years




14.After a major rainstorm in a humid climate and with no overland flow to a stream, why does the stream level rise almost immediately?

a.Groundwater seeps down to raise the water table to force older groundwater out into the stream.

b.The groundwater moves very fast, through porous ground, to the stream.

c.The stream rise comes from farther up the drainage basin.

d.Actually it doesn’t rise rapidly; it merely seems like it does.

e.none of these



15.What are oxbow lakes and how do they form?

a.Oxbow lakes are a stagnant part of a stream that is shaped like an ox’s yoke.

b.Oxbow lakes are parts of the stream channel left after an avulsion when a stream abandons its channel.

c.Oxbow lakes are cut off meanders, left behind as a flooding stream takes a shorter path downstream.

d.Oxbow lakes are the name given to plunge pools below wide waterfalls.

e.Oxbow lakes are watering holes for oxen and cattle



16.What changes upstream from a site would NOT likely lead to a higher and shorter hydrograph?

a.increased urbanization


c.clear-cut logging


e.reforestation for a Christmas tree farm



17.What keeps a stream flowing year-round, even though it may not rain for many months?

a.must have rained far upstream

b.large springs near the stream channel upstream

c.groundwater flow from the adjacent ground into the stream

d.very heavy dew on cold mornings

e.melting snowpack



18.What caused the catastrophic 1997 flood along the Red River in North Dakota?

a.thawing to the south of the frozen north-flowing river that backed up water behind the ice to the north

b.thawing of a heavy snowpack on the nearly horizontal surface of ice-age Lake Agassiz

c.heavy rains on a deep snowpack on nearly flat ground

d.a stalled warm front that was unusually far north for that time of year

e.a cold front from the north that intersected a warm front in the northern Mississippi valley



19.All of the following diminish the reliability of recurrence intervals EXCEPT:

a.using data from a short time interval.

b.separating different meteorological conditions.

c.population growth and urbanization.

d.modifying the stream by channelization.

e.deforestation within the watershed.



20.Which of the following CANNOT be used to determine the depth of a debris flow in a canyon it moved through?

a.bark battered off the upstream sides of trees up to that height

b.sand embedded in bark up to that height lodged in tree branches up to that height

d.the maximum height of sand eroded from the valley sides

e.the highest rocks on natural levees deposited by the flow

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