16) If you were planning to build a house on permafrost, which of the following precautions would be prudent?
A) Dig a deep foundation into the permafrost.
B) Construct a basement.
C) Build directly on the ground and insulate your floor well.
D) Elevate your house above the ground.
E) Excavate to bedrock, even if it’s tens of metres down.
17) How can scientists reconstruct past climate changes from caves?
A) by measuring the rates of cavern enlargement using carbon isotopes
B) by measuring isotopes of oxygen in cave formations such as stalactites
C) by measuring the amount of carbon dioxide in air exiting at cave openings
D) by examining and dating animal remains in cave deposits
E) by quantifying size and production rate of sinkholes above a cave system
18) A possible mitigation strategy to avoid the collapse of old coal mine adits or tunnels is to fill them with sand to support the roof. This strategy was employed in old gold mines in Timmins, Ontario. What happened over time to make this strategy ineffective?
A) Pore water pressures within the sand increased and caused liquefaction subsurface.
B) Some of the sand washed away and no longer supported the tunnel roofs.
C) The sand settled and compacted, leaving voids into which the roofs collapsed.
D) The sand displaced subsurface water, raising the water table and flooding parts of the surface.
E) The sand allowed water to flow freely through pore spaces, dissolving more material from the mine walls.
19) How is most table salt produced?
A) evaporation of seawater
B) open-pit salt mines
C) mountaintop removal
D) solution mines
E) shaft and tunnel mines
20) What is the most appropriate adjustment to subsidence hazards?
A) Construct detailed geologic maps of subsidence hazards.
B) Construct detailed subsurface maps using ground penetrating radar.
C) Avoid building in subsidence-prone regions.
D) Require full risk disclosure to potential property buyers.
E) Deny insurance coverage to those who live in hazardous areas.
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