Solved > 171. Training programs for the mentally retarded have:1990745 …

171. Training programs for the mentally retarded have proven relatively effective in making it possible for some retarded individuals to function in society. These types of programs generally rely on __________

a)classical conditioning.

b)cognitive restructuring.

c)behavioral modification techniques.

d)rational-emotive therapies.

How are learning disabilities defined and treated?

172. In order to be legally classified as suffering from a learning disability, a child must be assessed as functioning at a level that is _____ year(s) behind his or her same-aged peers.





– What is the nature-nurture debate regarding intelligence, and why are twin studies important to it?

173. He coined the phrase “nature-nurture controversy.”

a)Alfred Binet

b)Sir Francis Galton

c)Charles Darwin

d)Thomas Bouchard

174. Sir Francis Galton studied intelligence in many prominent English families and concluded from this research that intelligence is __________

a)largely subject to environmental influence.


c)determined by an equal influence from the environment and heredity.

d)determined by about a 70/30 split in favor of heredity.

175. Today the debate over whether intelligence is due to genetic or environmental factors does not focus so much on either or, but rather _________

a)when the influence of the environment begins and ends.

b)when the influence of genetics begins and ends.

c)how much of each factor contributes to intelligence.

d)what the nature of intelligence actually is.

176. If a child was adopted as an infant and never had contact with her or his biological parents, the child would likely develop an IQ that __________

a)more closely resembled the adoptive parents’ IQ.

b)more closely resembled the IQ of the biological siblings in the adoptive family.

c)more closely resembled the biological parents’ IQ.

d)falls somewhere between that of the biological and adoptive parents.

177. Which of the following statements about heredity and intelligence is TRUE?

a) Similarities in intelligence between identical twins who were separated at birth and raised in different

houses must be due to heredity.

b) Differences in intelligence between identical twins must be due to differences in their environments.

c) If identical twins are separated at birth and raised in different homes, yet still have similar intelligence

scores, the similarity in their scores must be due to hereditary influences.

d) Prenatal influences have little, if any, influence on intelligence and need not be taken into account when

studying environmental influences.

178. If intelligence is determined primarily by heredity, which pair should show the highest correlation between IQ scores?

a) fraternal twins

b) identical twins

c) brothers and sisters

d) parents and children

179. Which of the following groups of children is most likely to have the most similar IQ scores?

a) identical twins reared apart

b) same-sex fraternal twins

c) siblings reared together

d) identical twins reared together

What kinds of evidence suggest that IQ is changeable?

180. When we consider intelligence, it is important to remember that although __________ sets limits on a child’s potential, it is the __________ that permits that potential to be actualized.

a) learning; opportunity

b) opportunity; learning

c) heredity; environment

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