21) Mr. Green is making a special effort to help Steve. When he plans lessons he checks the instructions for learning tasks to make sure they are clear and specific. Mr. Green also avoids time pressure, gives students a chance to correct errors on their work and fosters an accepting, noncompetitive classroom climate. His emphasis on these strategies for helping Steve suggests that Steve has been having difficulty with:
a) the incentive value of success.
d) following classroom rules.
22) In a study explained in our text, students who expected and then received an award for drawing with felt-tipped markers:
a) later spent less time drawing with the markers than did students who were not rewarded.
b) later spent more time drawing with the markers than did students who were not rewarded.
c) drew pictures that were judged higher in quality than did students who were not rewarded.
d) drew pictures that were judged lower in quality than did students who were not rewarded.
23) Recent research on classroom rewards, using older students and school-like tasks:
a) provides unequivocal support for the idea of offering extrinsic rewards on most school tasks.
b) suggests that extrinsic rewards do not necessarily decrease intrinsic motivation.
c) clearly supports the earlier finding that material rewards decrease intrinsic motivation.
d) suggests that by the time students reach high school, extrinsic rewards are no longer influential.
24) Which of the following statements of how to use extrinsic rewards is supported by our text?
a) Use them on most tasks, regardless of their intrinsic interest.
b) Use primary, not secondary, extrinsic reinforcers.
c) Do not use them in classroom situations.
d) Use them mainly for subjects that have low intrinsic interest.
25) Teachers can enhance intrinsic motivation by:
a) withholding feedback.
b) giving constant praise.
c) personalizing lesson material.
d) giving tokens.
26) One way to enhance students’ intrinsic interest is to:
a) give them some choice over what they will study.
b) allow the teacher to make all the decisions.
c) provide material rewards over a long period of time.
d) avoid surprises.
27) The advantage of simulations is that they allow students to learn about a subject:
a) without the help of peers.
b) without interference.
c) from the inside.
d) from the outside.
28) When assigning material that is not interesting to all students, the teacher must try to enhance student motivation to learn. To prevent student confusion, teachers must:
a) assign simple projects.
b) read aloud as students follow in texts.
c) express clear expectations.
d) never assign uninteresting topics.
29) A student has done well on a test. Which of the following feedback statements from the teacher would be best, based on the discussion in your text?
a) “You did so well—you really lucked out.”
b) “Your definitions were very clear.”
c) “Good work, you are still one of the best students.”
d) “You’re so smart!”
30) Research on feedback would support the practice of:
a) giving feedback that leads students to make external attributions as they try to understand
their success or failure.
b) delaying feedback by a few days after an activity is completed.
c) writing only positive comments on returned reports or tests.
d) giving many brief quizzes rather than a few long tests.
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