21) Why do transcription and translation take place in two different locations?
A)DNA is located in the nucleus, whereas the ribosomes needed for transcription are found outside the cell.
B)Translation takes place in the nucleus, whereas the DNA is located elsewhere.
C)DNA is located in the nucleus, whereas the ribosomes needed for translation are found outside the cell.
DNA is located in the nucleus, whereas the ribosomes needed for translation are not in the nucleus. 21)
22) Genes are really just segments of DNA in patterns of As, Ts, Gs, and Cs. How does an RNA polymerase “know”where to start transcribing at the beginning of a particular gene?
A)RNA polymerase does not know, so it has to rely on the ribosome to help it start at the correct place.
B)The polymerase starts transcribing anywhere because the beginning point counts only during translation.
C)The polymerase finds the end of the previous gene and copies past that point.
It looks for a specific promoter region that marks the beginning of a gene.22)
23) If there are 64 potential codons that code for various amino acids but only about 20 specific amino acids, what must be true about the genetic code?
A)There are two codons for each amino acid, and the rest are stop codons.
B)Most of the codons are not used.
C)Multiple codons code for the same amino acid.
All are used, but bacteria and plants each have 20 different amino acids.23)
24) DNA fingerprinting is now widely used to tie a particular suspect to the DNA samples found at a crime scene. What benefits can be derived from this technology in fighting crime?
A)“Persons of interest”can be excluded more rapidly as suspects, so police can focus on other leads.
B)Solid matches can aid a district attorney’s case in proving guilt to a jury.
C)A jailed convict can be proven to have no connection to evidence found at a crime scene.
All of the above are true.24)
25) The genetic code works only because each codon is read in a specific manner that results in the correct amino acid being placed in that particular spot. What physically places each amino acid by matching up the correct codon?
A) tRNAB) DNAC) mRNAD) rRNA25)
26) Point mutations can occur in any given cell type, but they mostly affect only that one cell26)
and cells produced by it. What cell type, if mutated, would allow the mutation to be passed on to family members for generations?
B)white blood cells
C)glial cells, such as those that produce a myelin sheath
D)gametes, such as an egg or sperm
27) The p53 gene is a tumor– suppressing gene that prevents damaged cells from undergoing cell division. If this gene ceases to function due to a mutation, what will happen to the cell? A) Uncontrolled cell division will occur.
B)The cell will be prevented from undergoing division.
C)Tumors will be suppressed.
The cell will die.27)
28) UV rays from the sun cause a specific type of improper base pairing called a thymine dimer. If a cell cannot correct this problem, the section of DNA can be removed, causing a deletion of several nucleotides. What will this cause?
A)The codons could shift by one letter, and all the codons after that point would be off.
B)A point mutation forms that leads to changes in a handful of amino acids.
C)A point mutation forms that leads to a change in one amino acid.
The codons shift by one letter, and all the codons before the mutation are changed.28)
29) A new antibiotic is developed that interferes with the way tRNA fits into bacterial ribosomes.
How would this kill the bacteria?
A)The bacteria would be unable to produce necessary enzymes to carry out basic metabolism.
B)tRNA would not unwind the DNA to allow DNA polymerase to copy it; thus, cell division stops.
C)Ribosomes will not be able to produce mRNA, and cell functions will halt.
The tRNA would be unable to carry out transcription.29)
30) In gene expression, ________.
A)DNA directs the synthesis of a polypeptide that directs the synthesis of RNA
B)DNA directs the synthesis of RNA that directs the synthesis of a polypeptide
C)polypeptides direct the synthesis for both RNA and DNA
RNA determines the sequence of DNA, which directs the synthesis of polypeptides30)
31) A goal of genomics is to ________.31)
A)to provide a way to produce large quantities of a particular gene product
B)manipulate genetic material for human purposes
C)regulate how genes are expressed without changing the protein they encode D) understand the mechanisms that control gene expression
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