51) ________ is a dynamic condition in which an individual is confronted with an opportunity, demand, or resource related to what the individual desires and for which the outcome is perceived to be both uncertain and important.
52) Which of the following is not an example of a hindrance stressor?
A) red tape
B) office politics
C) role ambiguity
D) time urgency
E) job confusion
53) Which of the following stressors is likely to produce less strain than the other stressors?
A) red tape
B) office politics
C) confusion over job responsibilities
D) role ambiguity
E) pressure to complete tasks
54) Which of the following statements is true regarding the effects of stress?
A) Challenge stressors tend to produce more strain than hindrance stressors.
B) When challenge stress increases, those with high levels of organizational support have higher role-based performance.
C) Hindrance stress improves job performance in a supportive work environment.
D) Employees who have a stronger affective commitment to their organization perform worse under stress as compared to those who have low levels of commitment.
E) Challenge stress reduces job performance in all work environments.
55) Which of the following types of jobs is least likely to create stress and reduce satisfaction?
A) jobs that make multiple and conflicting demands
B) jobs that provide a high level of feedback
C) jobs that lack clarity about the incumbent’s duties
D) jobs that provide the incumbents less control over the pace of their work
E) jobs that provide a low level of variety
56) Jill is overwhelmed with the new tasks that she has been assigned after the department merger. Everyday, she arrives at work and makes a list of the new tasks, writes a number next to each one according to the urgency of completion, and schedules a time to complete each one. Although she’s still stressed, Jill is able to get most of the work done and feels better at the end of the day. Jill is using ________ techniques to reduce her stress.
A) job enrichment
B) goal setting
E) job enlargement
57) Paul is stressed with the new corporate reorganization. He now reports to a foreign office that has usurped many of his responsibilities, including the contract labor for his projects, therefore he’s working with less qualified and new contractors with whom he doesn’t have a relationship. However, the managers of the other departments find themselves in the same boat and everyday they are able to laugh over lunch about their new managerial impotence. ________ is helping Paul handle his stress.
A) Emotional contagion
B) Cognitive dissonance
C) Social support
58) Which of the following statements is true regarding stress?
A) Employees with external locus of control tend to be less prone to stress.
B) Training tends to decrease job stress.
C) Highly experienced employees tend to be more prone to stress.
D) Employees who are highly committed to their goals experience more stress.
E) Goal feedback tends to increase stress.
59) Which of the following statements is true regarding effects of culture on change effects?
A) In high power-distance cultures, change efforts will tend to be autocratically implemented by top management.
B) In cultures in which people believe that they can dominate their environment, individuals will tend to take passive approach toward change.
C) As compared to people from United States, people from China are more likely to seek change programs that promise fast results.
D) People in the U.S. are more resistant to change efforts than their Italian counterparts.
E) People in the U.S. tend to see themselves as subjugated to their environment and thus will tend to take a passive approach toward change.
60) Which of the following statements is true regarding the effects of culture on stress?
A) The job conditions that lead to stress remain the same across countries.
B) Stress is equally bad for employees of all cultures.
C) Individuals from individualistic countries experienced lower levels of stress due to work interfering with family than did individuals from collectivist countries.
D) Personality effects on stress are different across cultures.
E) Individuals from individualistic countries experience lower levels of stress due to work interfering with family than do individuals from collectivist countries.
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