61. Individuals who are high in reactance tend to
a. monitor their surroundings for signs of counterfactual thinking
b. react strongly and negatively to perceived threats
c. engage in magical thinking more than individuals who are low in reactance
d. be excellent candidates for therapies that make use of thought suppression
62. When we try to suppress thoughts there is ____________; if that is insufficient the ______________engages.
a. an internal censor; primal blocker
b. a monitoring process; operating process
c. an operating heuristic; egoistic heuristic
d. a neural barrier; ACTH barrier
63. Information overload sometimes occurs during thought suppression, causing
b. a headache
c. a rebound effect
d. displaced aggression
64. According to Wegner (1992, 1994) failed processes of thought suppression have produced
a. hyperattentivity to surroundings
b. unusual thoughts or images
d. increased impulsivity
65. Counterfactual thoughts
a. require effort
b. tend to occur automatically in many situations
c. are rare
d. are helpful in challenging a group consensus
66. Dr. Marshall, who is a psychotherapist, is asking her colleagues whether they believe it is generally helpful to encourage patients to engage in thought suppression. Based on research in this area, which of the following statements would offer the MOST accurate advice to Dr. Marshall?
a. Therapists should try to convince their patients that their ability to successfully engage in thought suppression is also evidence of their ability to control their thoughts.
b. Therapists who encourage thought suppression need to monitor the patient very closely as to whether they appear to be succeeding or failing in their efforts.
c. Therapists should first engage their patients in cognitive exercises that lead to information overload, then encourage the patients to attempt thought suppression.
d. Therapists should never encourage thought suppression since it almost always leads to negative outcomes for patients.
67. There are numerous occasions when an outcome is influenced by many different variables. Many people, however, will consider only one or two causal variables and ignore information about the others. This is
a. one instance of the law of similarity
b. a failure to take account of moderating variables
c. a limited cognitive appraisal task
d. an example of counterfactual thinking
68. Affect includes
a. the way we process, store, and use information
b. the interaction between moods and thoughts
c. current emotions and moods
d. our anticipated emotions and thoughts
69. Shortly before being interviewed for a job she really wants, Meredith finds out that the human resources director was involved in a minor traffic accident during lunch. Should Meredith be concerned that the traffic accident may have an influence on the outcomes of the job interview?
a. Yes—research indicates that even experienced interviewers are influenced by their current moods.
b. No—other factors, such as the strength of the applicants who have already been interviewed, will strongly outweigh any lingering effect of the director’s mood.
c. Yes—but only if Meredith mentions the accident in a way that accentuates the director’s presumed bad mood.
d. Maybe—it depends on how much experience the director has in interviewing job applicants.
70. We tend to recall facts and other information better when we are in the same mood as we were in when we learned the information. This is known as
a. the mood congruence effect
b. mood-dependent memory
c. the Ebbinghaus effect
d. affective state determined retrieval
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