11) Which of the following types of chromosomal mutation cannot revert to the wild-type state?
E) Any of these may revert to wild-type
12) In Drosophila melanogaster, polytene chromosomes are produced when
A) a chromosome breaks and rejoins with another section of the same chromosome.
B) a cell divides several times before the chromosomes are duplicated.
C) chromosomes are duplicated repeatedly without a corresponding nuclear division.
D) a segment of a chromosome is duplicated during an unequal crossing-over event.
E) characteristic banding patterns form on the chromosomes.
13) Which of the following is not used to help identify individual chromosomes in a karyotype?
A) Centromere position
B) Point mutations
C) Chromosome size
D) Banding pattern on staining
E) Heterochromatin regions
14) Many scientists believe that the evolution of multigene families, such as the genes for hemoglobin, is a result of which type of genetic rearrangement?
D) Reciprocal translocation
E) Nonreciprocal translocation
15) A(n) ________ inversion includes the centromere.
16) If a small region of a chromosome containing a non-essential gene is completely deleted, and an organism has two identical chromosomes with this deletion, then the organism
A) has no alleles of that gene.
B) is dead.
C) has more heterochromatin.
D) has recessive alleles of those genes.
E) will exhibit pseudodominance.
17) What is the genetic consequence of a homozygous translocation?
A) Inviable gamete formation (semisterility)
B) Gene duplications and deletions
C) Formation of abnormal chromatids following crossing-over
D) Abnormal pairing during meiosis
E) An alteration in the linkage relationships of genes
18) A human cell containing two sets of 23 chromosomes is
E) None of these
19) Nondisjunction of chromosomes may result in
A) the loss of one homologous chromosome pair.
B) the addition of one homologous chromosome pair.
C) the addition of a single chromosome.
D) the loss of a single chromosome.
E) All of these
20) A monosomic cell would produce gametes with how many chromosomes?
B) N and N-1
E) N and N+1
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