Multiple Choice Questions
1)Behavioural theories of learning emphasize
B) nature over nurture.
C) observable actions.
2)The principle of contiguity involves an association between
A) a negative and a positive stimulus.
B) emotion and behaviour.
C) two events through pairing.
D) two events through reinforcement.
3)During music class, Lisa enthusiastically sings aloud with her class, but the teacher comments, “Lisa, please…you sound like an owl in a torture chamber.” Lisa turns bright red. The next week she feels ill when it is time to go to music class again. Feeling anxiety at the prospect of going to music class is an example of
A) an unconditioned stimulus.
B) classical conditioning.
C) cognitive learning.
D) social learning.
4)In the above example involving Lisa, feeling ill at the prospect of going to the music class served as the
A) conditioned response.
B) conditioned stimulus.
C) unconditioned response.
D) unconditioned stimulus.
5)In classical conditioning, the conditioned stimulus and the unconditioned stimulus must be
A) dependent upon reward.
B) equivalent stimuli.
C) in a contiguous relationship.
D) in a noncontiguous relationship.
6)Which of the following is a practical implication of contiguity theory?
A) Avoid the use of punishment whenever humanly possible.
B) Make sure that the last response to a stimulus is the correct response.
C) Use continuous reinforcement rather than intermittent reinforcement.
D) Use intermittent reinforcement instead of continuous reinforcement.
7)A neutral stimulus is paired with an unconditioned stimulus that brings about an unconditioned response. Through repeated pairings of the neutral stimulus and the unconditioned stimulus, the
A) conditioned stimulus will trigger a conditioned response.
B) neutral stimulus will come to be ignored.
C) unconditioned response will become extinct.
D) unconditioned response becomes its own stimulus.
8)In an experiment, an electric can opener is used to open a can, and no salivation by the subject is detected. After a number of pairings between the can opener’s operation and food, any time the can opener is used, the subject salivates. The conditioned response in this study is the
A) can opener.
C) salivation to the can opener.
D) salivation to the food.
9)Ray’s temper tantrums have finally driven his mother to her “wits’ end.” Ray’s mother resolves that she will ignore the tantrums no matter what. This plan is an example of
A) classical conditioning.
10)B. F. Skinner is to ________, as Ivan Pavlov is to ________.
A) classical conditioning; cognitive learning
B) classical conditioning; operant conditioning
C) cognitive learning; classical conditioning
D) operant conditioning; classical conditioning
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