The demand for electric power is usually much higher during the day than it is at night, and utility

The demand for electric power is usually
much higher during the day than it is at night, and utility companies often
sell power at night at much lower prices to encourage consumers to use the
available power generation capacity and to avoid building new, expensive power
plants that will be used only a short time during peak periods. Utilities are
also willing to purchase power produced during the day from private parties at
a high price.

Suppose a utility company is selling
electric power for $0.05/kWh at night and is willing to pay $0.12/kWh for power
produced during the day. To take

The demand for electric power is usually
much higher during the day than it is at night, and utility companies often
sell power at night at much lower prices to encourage consumers to use the
available power generation capacity and to avoid building new, expensive power
plants that will be used only a short time during peak periods. Utilities are
also willing to purchase power produced during the day from private parties at
a high price.

Suppose a utility company is selling
electric power for $0.05/kWh at night and is willing to pay $0.12/kWh for power
produced during the day. To take advantage of this opportunity, an entrepreneur
is considering building a large reservoir 40 m above the lake level, pumping
water from the lake to the reservoir at night using cheap power, and letting
the water flow from the reservoir back to the lake during the day, producing
power as the pump-motor operates as a turbine-generator during reverse flow.
Preliminary analysis shows that a water flow rate of 2 m3/s can be
used in either direction. The combined pump-motor and turbine-generator
efficiencies are expected to be 75 percent each. Disregarding the frictional
losses in piping and assuming the system operates for 10 h each in the pump and
turbine modes during a typical day, determine the potential revenue this
pump-turbine system can generate per year.

Q297:

In a hydroelectric power plant, water flows
through a large tube through the dam, which is called

(a) Tailrace

(b) Draft tube

(c) Runner

(d) Penstock

(e) Propeller

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