Have you, a close friend, or a family member ever been diagnosed with a chronic disease? How has that diagnosis changed your or his or her life?
At least 250 words. APA Format
Other Chronic Diseases and
Chronic Diseases: What Are They, and Why Are They Important?
• Diseases that persist for a long time • Rarely cured completely • Chronic diseases (including heart disease
and cancer) cause more than half of deaths around the world.
• Almost all women will be affected by at least one chronic disease.
Chronic Diseases Are Common, and They Also Affect Women More Than Men • Chronic diseases are responsible for 70% of
deaths in the U.S. (men and women). • Women have greater rates of arthritis,
autoimmune diseases, Alzheimer’s disease, and: – Osteoporosis (4x more common) – Lupus (9x more common) – Hypothyroidism (50x more common) – Fibromyalgia (7x more common)
• Women are also more likely to be caretakers for other people with chronic diseases.
Racial/Ethnic and Socioeconomic Dimensions
• White and Asian women have osteoporosis more often than African American women.
• African American women are more likely than White women to die following a hip fracture.
• American Indians and Alaska Natives have the highest prevalence rates of diabetes.
• Blacks and Whites have somewhat equal rates of arthritis, but Blacks have a higher rate of activity limitations due to arthritis and a higher prevalence of severe pain.
Estimated Annual Costs
Conditions Costs Arthritis $128 billion
Diabetes $245 billion
Alzheimer’s disease and dementia
Bone fractures $19 billion
• Literally “porous bone” • Caused by gradual loss of calcium that weakens
bone structure • Usually occurs without symptoms
Figure 11-2A: Healthy bone (left matrix)
Figure 11-2B: Osteoporotic bone (right matrix)
Osteoporosis in the vertebra can cause women to lose height and a curving of the spine.
Nonmodifiable Risk Factors for Osteoporosis
• Being female • Increased age/postmenopausal • Small frame and thin-boned • White or Asian • Family history of osteoporosis or fractures
Modifiable Risk Factors for Osteoporosis
• Diet low in calcium and vitamin D • Sedentary lifestyle • Cigarette smoking • Estrogen deficiency • Low weight and body mass index • Certain medications
– Glucocorticoids, anticonvulsants • Amenorrhea • Anorexia nervosa or bulimia
Screening and Diagnosis for Osteoporosis
Women who should be tested • All postmenopausal women younger than age 65 who
have one or more additional risk factors for osteoporosis besides menopause
• All women age 65 and older • Women 50 and older with fractures • Women with a condition or taking a medication
associated with low bone mass or bone loss • Women who are considering therapy for osteoporosis or
who want to monitor the effectiveness of certain osteoporosis treatments
Treatment and Prevention of Osteoporosis
• Adequate supply of calcium (ideally from food) • Vitamin D • Participate in weight-bearing and muscle-
strengthening exercises • Estrogen replacement therapy • Drugs: alendronate (Fosamax), risedronate
(Actonel), raloxifene (Evista), teriparatide (Forteo), nasal calcitonin spray
• Fall-prevention strategies
Arthritis • Arthritis—inflammation of the joints—affects
an estimated 50 million Americans (1 in 5 adults). – Osteoarthritis: degenerative joint disease – Rheumatoid: chronic inflammatory disease – Gout: excess uric acid in the body
Arthritis affects at least 1 in 6 adults in every state. Arthritis
Figure 11-4: Percentage of adults with arthritis, 2013
Data from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Arthritis prevalence estimates by state, Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System 2013. Available at http://www.cdc.gov/arthritis/data_statistics/state-data-current.htm
Healthy Joint versus Osteoarthritic Joint versus Rheumatoid Arthritis
Figure 11-3: Left to right, healthy joint, joint affected by osteoarthritis, and joint affected by rheumatoid arthritis.
Risk Factors for Arthritis
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