Critique their application of theory to their practice issue and either explain why you support their thinking or recommend a different theory to consider, which may be the theory you we

Respond to the 4 colleagues attached below with at least 2 references each. Respond to their posts in one or more of the following ways:

  • Critique their application of theory to their practice issue and either explain why you support their thinking or recommend a different theory to consider, which may be the theory you were assigned (health belief theory). Explain your thinking.
  • Drawing on their explanation of their assigned theory, describe how this theory applies to your practice issue (psychiatric) and explain your reasoning.
  • Compare and contrast their assigned theory with your own for application to practice issues. Support your reasoning.  

1. Health promotion is an interdisciplinary theory focusing on improving overall well-being and preventing health issues through individual and societal actions. Health promotion empowers individuals to make informed choices about their health and well-being. When applied to medication compliance in mental health, Health Promotion Theory can encompass a range of strategies to support patients in managing their conditions effectively (Chen & Hsieh, 2021). It incorporates elements from various fields, including psychology, sociology, public health, and education, to address the complex factors influencing health outcomes. This theory acknowledges that health is not merely the absence of disease but a holistic state of physical, mental, and social well-being. It emphasizes empowering individuals and communities to make informed choices, adopt healthy behaviors, and create environments that support well-being. Health promotion theory offers a comprehensive framework for tackling mental health medication non-compliance, treatment failure, and readmissions. It emphasizes patient education, empowerment, and considering social determinants of health. By promoting active patient involvement, personalized care plans, and addressing broader social factors, health promotion theory can help improve treatment adherence, reduce the risk of treatment failure, and lower readmission rates among individuals with mental health conditions (Singh et al., 2022).

Application of Health Promotion Theory to Medication Non-Compliance and Why

Health promotion theory is essential in medication non-compliance and treatment failure because it shifts the focus from a purely medical model to a holistic one that considers the social determinants of health. To apply health promotion theory to mental health medication non-compliance, healthcare providers can offer educational programs explaining medications’ benefits and potential side effects. One can establish peer support groups to create a sense of community and reduce the stigma associated with mental conditions. Providing resources for coping strategies and stress management can also empower individuals to manage their mental health better. By focusing on these aspects, health promotion theory empowers individuals with knowledge about the benefits of medication. It provides a supportive environment that encourages medication compliance and reduces treatment failure, ultimately improving mental health outcomes (Singh et al., 2022). Additionally, health promotion can include lifestyle interventions that complement medication regimens. For example, a holistic approach might promote healthy habits like regular exercise, a balanced diet, and stress-reduction techniques like mindfulness meditation. When patients see how these lifestyle changes can enhance the effectiveness of their medication, they may be more motivated to adhere to their treatment plan. By integrating these practices into their daily lives, individuals with mental health conditions can experience improved well-being, reducing the temptation to discontinue their medications. Furthermore, health promotion recognizes the importance of addressing social determinants of health. In mental health, this means considering housing stability, access to social support networks, and economic well-being (Deng et al., 2022). For instance, if a patient with a mental health condition is experiencing housing instability, a health promotion approach involves connecting them with resources to secure stable housing. By addressing these social determinants, health promotion theory aims to create a supportive environment that reduces stressors contributing to treatment failure and readmissions.

Factors influencing medication non-adherence among mental health patients.

Various factors operating at different levels can contribute to psychotropic medication non-adherence. It can be particularly effective when applying health promotion theory to the issue of mental health medication non-compliance, treatment failure, or readmissions. For example, individuals with mental health conditions may face challenges in adhering to their medication regimens due to stigma, side effects, or lack of support. This approach recognizes that medication adherence is not just about taking pills but also about addressing the broader context in which individuals live, including their social, economic, and psychological factors (Semahegn et al., 2020). By applying health promotion principles, healthcare professionals can tailor interventions to each patient’s unique needs, increasing the likelihood of treatment success and reducing the burden on healthcare systems.

Improving medication compliance among individuals

Therefore, comprehensive intervention strategies should be designed to address factors associated with psychotropic medication non-adherence. Managing major psychiatric disorders is challenging due to medication non-adherence (Semahegn et al., 2020). Health promotion theory can be applied effectively to address issues like mental health medication non-compliance, treatment failure, or readmissions. For example, health promotion emphasizes patient education and empowerment when dealing with medication non-compliance in individuals with mental health conditions. Healthcare providers can engage patients in shared decision-making, providing information about their medications’ benefits and potential side effects. They can also collaborate with patients to develop personalized treatment plans that align with their values and preferences. By involving patients actively in their care, health promotion theory promotes a sense of ownership and responsibility for their treatment, which can improve medication adherence. Lastly, involving families and caregivers is vital in health promotion efforts to improve medication compliance. Education and support should extend to those who play a significant role in the patient’s life. For instance, a family therapy session could educate relatives about the importance of medication adherence and help them understand the signs of non-compliance or potential side effects. By creating a supportive environment at home, patients are more likely to have a robust support system that encourages them to stay on track with their medication regimen.


In conclusion, health promotion theory is a valuable framework for addressing medication non-compliance, treatment failure, or readmissions in mental health. It emphasizes holistic well-being, considers social determinants of health, and empowers individuals and communities to take control of their health. By applying this theory, healthcare professionals can develop tailored interventions that address the root causes of non-compliance and treatment failure, leading to better mental health outcomes and reduced healthcare costs. Health promotion is an interdisciplinary theory encompassing a range of strategies and approaches to improve overall health and well-being. It draws from multiple disciplines, such as psychology, sociology, public health, and education, to address the complex and multifaceted factors influencing health outcomes.

2.My assigned interdisciplinary nursing theory is problem-based learning, an example of Theory-based teaching strategies. This discussion will demonstrate how problem-based learning impacts the Nursing shortage issue in my practice

Interdisciplinary nursing theories are critical because they offer a thorough framework for comprehending and resolving patients’ complex needs. They encourage collaboration among healthcare practitioners from all backgrounds to provide a patient-centered approach to care that considers all aspects of their health, including their psychological, social, cultural, and spiritual needs. (Nurse Key, 2016)

Nursing shortage remains a persistent problem in the healthcare community, and applying nursing theories could help reduce this problem.

Problem-based learning involves using pre-defined cases to enhance and motivate students to acquire particular skills, knowledge, and abilities. (Mcewen & Wills, 2019).

The paradigm of this theory in nursing is consistent with the needs of the field for clinical judgment, effective communication, and critical thinking. It gives nursing students a solid basis for professional practice and prepares them to thrive in challenging healthcare situations. (Journal of Nursing Education, 2009).

Application of problem-based learning to Nursing shortage

When applied to the nursing shortage issue, Problem-based learning can be an effective technique for nursing education and workforce development. Problem-based learning can be applied in the following ways to alleviate the nursing shortage:

Identifying the Causes of the Nursing Shortage: Organizations can engage in problem-based learning activities to investigate and understand the various factors contributing to the nursing shortage. (Mcewen & Wills, 2019). An example is exploring issues like an aging nursing workforce, inadequate education capacity, or job dissatisfaction. Organizations can better grasp the issue by analyzing these factors. 

Workforce Planning and Recruitment Strategies: In problem-based learning situations, organizations can take on the roles of administrators or nurse managers in charge of workforce planning. (Mcewen & Wills, 2019). An example includes looking into methods for drawing in and keeping nursing personnel, like providing financial aid for schools, setting up mentorship programs, or enhancing working circumstances.

Interprofessional Collaboration: Collaboration between nursing students and students from other healthcare fields, such as medicine, pharmacy, or social work, can be fostered by problem-based learning. (Mcewen & Wills, 2019). This interdisciplinary approach can promote improved teamwork in healthcare settings and build a better awareness of each profession’s role in tackling the nursing shortage.

Policy Analysis and Advocacy: It is possible to teach nursing students about healthcare advocacy and policy using problem-based learning. (Mcewen & Wills, 2019). For example, hospitals working on problem-based learning projects investigating, evaluating, and proposing evidence-based solutions to healthcare policy connected to the nursing shortage. This may enable them to take the lead in promoting legislation to alleviate the shortage.

In conclusion, nursing education programs may give students the critical thinking and problem-solving abilities necessary to contribute to solutions for this urgent healthcare issue by using problem-based learning to address the nursing shortage issue. Thanks to this strategy, future nurses may develop a sense of social responsibility and activism. Health organizations can adopt these strategies and also look into international collaboration/ recruitment to solve this lingering issue in the United States.

3. Nola J. Pender’s Health Promotion Model (HPM), introduced in 1982 and revised in 1996, offers a structured approach to comprehending the factors that impact health-promoting actions. (Otu & Karagozoglu, 2021).  This framework views health as a dynamic and positive state influenced by personal, behavioral, and environmental elements. (Pender, 2011).

The HPM refers to one’s capacity to gain authority over and enhance their well-being. This means that individuals possess the skills and knowledge to take charge of their own health, making positive changes and improvements to achieve optimal well-being. (McCutcheon et al.,2016). The model highlights the significance of enabling people to make knowledgeable choices and adopt wholesome habits, ultimately resulting in enhanced well-being and improved quality of life. Ultimately, health promotion emphasizes the importance of individuals taking charge of their health to promote and maintain a healthy lifestyle.

The HPM delineates interconnected health-promoting behaviors individuals can employ to bolster their health and avert illnesses. These behaviors are examined in the context of individuals’ behaviors and experiences as well as social and physical surroundings’ impact on health-related choices. To expand on that, multiple aspects of the HPM can arise when evaluating the model and its application. One aspect of the HPM encompasses individual characteristics and experiences, such as age, gender, ethnicity, education, perceptions of susceptibility to illness, and self-confidence in adopting health-promoting behaviors. (Aktas & Esin, 2023). Another pertains to behavior-specific cognitions and emotions, including one’s beliefs and attitudes regarding particular health-promoting actions, encompassing the assessment of benefits and barriers and emotional states like excitement and anxiety. This is in addition to the outcomes of these behaviors, encompassing physical activity, nutrition, stress management, interpersonal relationships, and spiritual growth. Lastly, the social, physical, and environmental factors that can shape an individual’s health-related decisions.

In sum, Nola Pender’s HPM offers a comprehensive framework for understanding the interplay of individual and environmental factors in shaping health behaviors. It acknowledges the significance of individual traits and the impact of social and physical surroundings in molding health-related choices. This model can guide interventions to promote health and prevent diseases by targeting specific components to boost motivation for health-promoting behaviors.

One notable practice concern linked to health promotion theory in nursing revolves around identifying the most efficacious strategies for encouraging healthy behaviors and thwarting diseases. Nurses must remain current with the latest research in this domain and adeptly integrate this knowledge into their practice. Furthermore, tackling factors influencing health outcomes, social determinants of health, and inadequate access to healthcare is imperative, as these factors can impact an individual’s ability to maintain optimal health. Nurses must be attuned to these issues and collaborate with patients and external organizations to address them within a holistic health promotion approach.

In the realm of nursing practice, HPM is influential in enhancing the health of individuals, families, and communities. This theory underscores the significance of education, prevention, and empowerment to foster healthy lifestyles. (Polat & Aylaz, 2022). Its implementation involves assessing, planning, executing, and assessing health promotion strategies tailored to individual needs and preferences in their environment, not just within healthcare institutions.

A distinct example of a large group of patients that can benefit from this model by enhancing health-impacting behaviors are individuals with diabetes. (Shahabi et al., 2022).  Their personal beliefs and attitudes can influence these patients’ understanding of their illness. This can cause variant levels of treatment plan compliance and different outcomes, even among patients with the same level of diabetes progression. For example, a patient who is afraid of needles may be less likely to self-inject insulin, even if it is necessary to control their blood sugar levels. This is often the case when clinicians observe variations in treatment plan compliance and outcomes by different patients with the same level of diabetes progression. Clinicians should be aware of the role that patient beliefs and attitudes play in diabetes management. By understanding these factors, clinicians can better tailor treatment plans to each individual patient’s needs and improve outcomes. (Hoseinian et al., 2023).

External factors can also encompass difficulties in obtaining the necessary resources for managing their condition and systemic barriers that impede their capacity to adhere to their care plan and attain their health goals. In this case, the HPM can help identify and tackle systemic obstacles hindering health promotion, such as the absence of social and spiritual support access. (Boland, 2000). In this context, the HPM can also empower and enable nurses to advocate for positive social changes to overcome these systemic hurdles.

Lastly, a perceived challenge in the practice environment lies in effectively implementing interventions that tackle multiple determinants of health. Many health promotion interventions focus primarily on modifying individual behavior, often disregarding broader social, economic, and environmental factors contributing to health outcomes. To promote sustainable change, the HPM posits that interventions must encompass the context in which individuals live and work, addressing individual behavior and the structural determinants of health. Achieving this requires intricate collaboration across various sectors and community organizations beyond the walls of a healthcare institute. (McCutcheon et al.,2016).

In conclusion, health promotion theory constitutes a valuable framework for nurses in their practice, emphasizing preventing illness and enhancing overall health through diverse strategies. To effectively apply this theory, nurses must stay informed about the latest research and tailor health promotion strategies to each client’s unique needs. Practice issues related to health promotion theory encompass the challenge of identifying effective strategies and the imperative to address social determinants of health to foster optimal health outcomes.

4.The interdisciplinary theory of Cultural Competence/Diversity, also known as Cultural Competence in Healthcare, is a framework that emphasizes the importance of healthcare professionals understanding and effectively responding to the cultural and diversity-related aspects of patient care (McEwen et al., 2019). This theory acknowledges that patients come from various cultural backgrounds, and these backgrounds can significantly impact their health beliefs, behaviors, and experiences within the healthcare system. Cultural competence is vital for providing equitable, patient-centered care and reducing healthcare disparities among diverse patient populations (Campinha-Bacote, 2002). Cultural Competence/Diversity is relevant and highly valuable when applied in a corrections facility. In such a setting, where the inmate population often represents diverse cultural backgrounds, applying cultural competence principles can significantly improve healthcare delivery and improve outcomes. 

Here is how Cultural Competence/Diversity can be applied in a corrections facility. Mentioned here are key components and principles of the interdisciplinary theory of Cultural Competence/Diversity that include:

· Cultural Awareness: Healthcare providers should develop an awareness of their cultural beliefs, biases, and values (Like R. C., 2020). This self-awareness is essential for understanding how their background may influence their interactions with patients from different cultures. For example, nurses and staff should undergo cultural awareness training to understand their beliefs and biases. This self-awareness is essential for recognizing how their backgrounds might influence interactions with inmates from different cultures. By understanding their perspectives, staff can approach cultural differences with sensitivity and respect.

· Cultural Knowledge: Healthcare professionals and staff should actively seek knowledge about the inmate population’s cultural norms, beliefs, and practices (Like R. C., 2020). This knowledge helps in recognizing and respecting cultural differences. For example, staff should be aware of dietary restrictions, religious practices, and healthcare beliefs that may vary among inmates.

· Cultural Skills: Cultural competence involves developing practical skills for effective cross-cultural communication and care. Staff should develop practical skills for effective cross-cultural communication and care. This includes using interpreters when necessary to communicate with inmates who may speak different languages or have limited English proficiency, asking culturally sensitive questions, and adapting communication styles to meet the needs of diverse patients (Betancourt et al.; E. R., 2005).

· Cultural Respect: Respect for cultural diversity is fundamental. It means recognizing that each patient is unique and their cultural beliefs and preferences should be respected and incorporated into their care plans. Staff should respect inmates’ cultural rituals, dietary preferences, and religious practices.

· Cultural Humility: Cultural humility goes beyond competence and involves a lifelong commitment to self-reflection and learning about different cultures. It acknowledges that no one can be fully competent in every culture but should strive to be humble and open to ongoing learning (Campinha-Bacote, 2002). In a corrections facility, staff should recognize that they may only be fully adept in some cultures but should strive to be modest and open to learning. This approach helps create an environment where inmates feel valued and understood.

· Patient-Centered Care: Cultural competence emphasizes patient-centered care, where the inmate’s cultural beliefs and preferences are considered in decision-making, treatment plans, and care delivery. In a corrections facility, this means involving inmates in their healthcare decisions and considering their cultural values when planning care.

· Reducing Health Disparities: A primary goal of cultural competence is to reduce healthcare disparities among different cultural and ethnic groups (Betancourt et al.; E. R., 2005). Applying Cultural Competence/Diversity in a corrections facility can contribute to reducing healthcare disparities among different cultural and ethnic groups within the inmate population. By understanding and addressing the unique needs of diverse inmates, healthcare providers, and staff can work towards achieving health equity within the correctional setting.

· Collaboration and Cultural Brokering: In some cases, staff in a corrections facility may need to collaborate with cultural brokers or individuals who can bridge the gap between the inmate’s culture and the healthcare system (Purnell et al., B. J. (2008). These individuals can facilitate communication and understanding, especially when language barriers or cultural differences challenge effective care.

To conclude, cultural competence is crucial in providing high-quality and equitable healthcare to diverse patient populations. It is essential in a corrections facility to ensure that healthcare is equitable, patient-centered, and culturally sensitive. It is a multifaceted concept that extends beyond mere awareness of cultural differences. It embodies principles of fairness, justice, and equity in healthcare. In a corrections facility, where the inmate population is diverse and faces unique challenges, cultural competence is a desirable trait and an essential component of providing humane and effective healthcare services. It fosters trust, improves patient-provider communication, and ultimately enhances healthcare outcomes. It is a fundamental aspect of healthcare that acknowledges the diversity of patient populations and the influence of culture on health beliefs and behaviors. It plays a pivotal role in ensuring that healthcare is not only accessible to all but also tailored to meet the unique needs of individuals from various cultural backgrounds. Plagiarism Free Papers

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