For this week’s discussion, we will explore the role of gender in the hard rock, heavy metal, glam rock, disco and punk genres. Choose a “star” from one of the aforementioned genres in music (e.g., Donna Summer for a woman in disco or The Village People as an LGBTQ+ band in disco). You may wish to review Chapter 57 as well since this topic underlines several themes within our course (pp. 247-249, text). Describe how music began to transition from the typical heterosexual male singing and playing electronically amplified instruments loudly to a driving rock beat to these new styles. Share (use the mashup tool) a musical example and explain how gender in the era of your choice offered a new perspective to music.
In response to at least three of your peers, when responding to your peers this week, choose an additional musical example (use the mashup tool) and describe how it either reflects or contradicts your peers’ points of view.
When sharing your musical selections with the class, you may use the mashup tool for YouTube. If you are uncomfortable with that or would like to post a traditional text response, that is acceptable as well. Below are the Mashup direction should you choose to use that option. Using Mashup is NOT mandatory.
How to Create a YouTube Mashup How to Create a YouTube Mashup – Alternative Formats
YouTube Instructions YouTube Instructions – Alternative Formats
Textbook or eBook:
Campbell, M. (2019). Popular music in America. 5th ed. Cengage Learning.
In this unit, we will be exploring the development of soul to funk and its role in the adaptation ska to reggae. This unit also looks into disco, its culture and influence and the impact it had on the punk music scene.
· Chapter 14: New Trends of the Late 1970s (pgs. 256-277)
Articles, Websites, and Videos:
The Funk Music Hall of Fame and Exhibition Center: This site offers some additional historical information about funk music and those punk stars that have been honored in the hall of fame.
· History of funk . (2016-2019). The Funk Hall of Fame.
· 59-2 George Clinton and Funk
The path from soul to funk went through James Brown; Brown was the “father of funk” as well as the “godfather of soul.” Funk musicians built their music on both the basic concept of Brown’s music and many of its key features. However, it was Sly and the Family Stone who played the key role in the transition from soul to funk.
The band was the brainchild of Sly Stone (born Sylvester Stewart, 1944), a disc jockey turned producer and bandleader. More than any other band of the era, Sly and the Family Stone preached integration. The lineup included two of Stone’s siblings (his brother Freddie and sister Rosie), Cynthia Robinson on trumpet, and several others, including trend-setting bassist Larry Graham. There were blacks and whites, and women as well as men.
In a series of hits spanning a five-year period (1968–1972), Sly and the Family Stone created an exuberant new sound. We hear it in “Thank You (Falettinme Be Mice Elf Agin),” which reached the top of the charts in January 1970. The music of James Brown is the direct antecedent of this song and this style. Like Brown’s music, there is a groove built up from multiple layers of riffs, played by rhythm and horns. There is no harmonic movement—everything happens over one chord, and the vocal part is intermittent, with long pauses between phrases.
Sly & The Family Stone perform on the TV show The Midnight Special, 1971.
Sly and the Family Stone.
STYLE Proto-funk ⋅ FORM Open, with chorus
Vocals (group singing most of the time), electric bass, electric guitar, drums, keyboards, and horns (trumpet and saxophone)
Moderate tempo; rock rhythm with sharp backbeat; many layers of rhythmic activity, including several double-time (based on rhythm twice as fast as rock beat) rhythmic figures. Almost everything is syncopated.
Repetitive melodies made up of short riffs in both the verse and the chorus
One chord throughout the entire song
Dense, layered texture, made up of riffs in rhythm instruments and horns underneath the vocal. Texture remains much the same throughout the song.
DARK LYRICS, UPBEAT MUSIC
Words and music = conflicting messages? Party-time groove versus sobering portraits of ghetto life.
EMPHASIS ON THE GROOVE
Focus on rhythm and texture; harmony = one chord; melody = repeated riffs
NEW BASS SOUNDS
New, more percussive style: string plucked, slapped, or thumped
BRIDGE FROM JAMES BROWN TO FUNK
Common threads include the great groove, static harmony, and percussive sounds
Listen to this selection in the unit playlist.
The most direct antecedent for complex rhythms over static harmony is found in James Brown’s music. However, the sound is much denser and more active than that heard in “Papa’s Got a Brand New Bag.” Although the drummer marks off a rock beat along with the backbeat, the underlying rhythmic feel of the song is twice as fast. This new rhythmic foundation is what is now often called a sixteen-beat rhythm . We sense this faster-moving layer in virtually all the other parts: the opening bass riff, the guitar and horn riffs, and—most explicitly—in the “CHUCK-a-puck-a” vocalization. The more active texture opens up many more rhythmic patterns that can conflict with the beat.
There is a spontaneous aspect to the sound, as if it grows out of a jam over the basic groove. It is this quality that gives the song (and Stone’s music) its distinctive looseness—looseness that implores listeners to “dance to the music.”
If we just listen to Sly’s music, it can hypnotize us with its contagious rhythm. However, when we consider the words—the opening lines of the lyric are “Lookin’ at the devil, grinnin’ at his gun/Fingers start shakin’, I begin to run”—we sense that the band is laughing to keep from crying, or burning down the house. As with many other Sly and the Family Stone songs, there is a strong political and social message. We sense that the music is the buffer between the band and society, a restraint against violent activism.
This is our first example of what would become a growing trend in Afro-centric music, from the United States and abroad: powerful lyrics over infectious rhythms. There is an apparent contradiction between the sharp social commentary in the lyrics and the seduction of the beat. They seem to be operating at cross-purposes: full attention and response versus surrender to the groove. Perhaps that’s so, but it’s also possible to interpret this apparent conflict in other ways. One is to view the music as a tool to draw in listeners, to expose them to the message of the words. Another is to understand the music as a means of removing the sting of the conditions described in the lyrics: lose yourself in the music, to avoid simply losing it.
Sly and the Family Stone became popular after the assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr., and after the backlash from the civil rights movement had built up steam. Although civil rights legislation removed much of the governmental support for the racial inequities in American life, it did not eliminate prejudice or racial hatred. The lyrics of this and other songs by Sly and the Family Stone speak to that.
The music provided one way to escape the pain of prejudice. Drugs were another. Sly Stone used them to excess and torpedoed his career in the process. He became increasingly unreliable, often not showing up for engagements; promoters stopped booking his band. Once again, drugs had silenced a truly innovative voice.
The influence of Stone’s innovations is evident in a wide range of music from the seventies and beyond—directly in styles like the art/funk jazz fusion of Herbie Hancock and the film music of Curtis Mayfield, and indirectly in styles like disco. However, it led most directly to funk, especially the music of George Clinton.
George Clinton (b. 1941) was the mastermind behind two important funk bands, Parliament and Funkadelic. While still a teen, he formed the Parliaments, but as a doo-wop group. They signed with Motown in 1964 but did not break through. When Clinton left Motown, he had to relinquish the Parliaments name, so he formed Funkadelic while battling Motown to reclaim the name. Funkadelic represented a major change of direction. As the group’s name implies, it brought together funk and psychedelic rock: James Brown and Sly Stone meet Jimi Hendrix. When Clinton regained control of the Parliament name in 1974, he used two names for the same band.
He recorded guitar-oriented material under the Funkadelic name and more polished horn-section material with vocal harmonies under Parliament’s. This enabled the two “bands” to perform on one stage at one time.
The formation of Funkadelic signaled Clinton’s transformation into Dr. Funkenstein (he also referred to himself as Maggot Overlord). The title of his 1970 album Free Your Mind … And Your Ass Will Follow shows another side of his funky sense of humor.
Although Clinton certainly enjoyed being provocative and playing with words, there is in many of his songs a sense that he too is laughing to keep from crying. He tucks his darker messages inside humorous packages set to a good-time groove. When he tells listeners to “Tear the roof off the sucker,” he could be urging them to party hard—or to riot.
Without question there’s an escapist aspect to his work: Clinton’s many aliases, the flamboyant costumes he and his bands wore in performance, and the sci-fi world he created (the “Mothership Connection”) evidence that. Clinton seems to invite listeners to become “one nation under a groove”; surrendering to the rhythm offers momentary relief from the pain of daily life as a black person in the United States. We experience this in his 1976 hit “Tear the Roof Off the Sucker (Give Up the Funk),” which his band Parliament recorded.
The song shows Clinton’s debt to James Brown and Sly and the Family Stone, and the ways in which his music went beyond theirs. Clinton’s most obvious debt to Brown is in personnel. After 1975 his roster included three significant James Brown alumni: bassist Bootsy Collins, saxophonist Maceo Parker, and trombonist Fred Wesley. They were key members of his large band, which included as many as twelve musicians at a time. As a result, the sound of Clinton’s bands is fuller than either James Brown’s or Sly Stone’s because there are more instruments and all of them are busy.
Bootsy Collins, and
STYLE Funk ⋅ FORM Open
Voices, electric bass, drums, conga drum, electric guitars, synthesizers, and horns
Moderate tempo; basic beat is a rock rhythm, but many parts move twice as fast as rock (the opening “rap,” the bass patterns, and the conga part). Lots of syncopation in the instrumental background.
Melody derived from blues-inflected modal scale. First melody: long, unbroken descending line. Second melody: short riffs. Third melody: long sustained phrase. All three melodies are simply repeated several times; there is no development.
No harmonic change: decorative harmonies (in voices and synthesizer) derived from modal scale
Dense texture, with voices, percussion, bass, sustained chords on horns and synthesizers, and high synthesizer lines and chords. Strong contrast from section to section (“Give up the funk” = voices, bass doubling the melody, and percussion).
RHYTHM OVER MELODY
The rhythm, which features complex interactions among the various instruments, is more interesting than the melody, which doesn’t develop at all
THE BASS AND BLACK MUSIC
Completely liberated bass: little timekeeping; instead, intricate patterns and riffs, occasional doubling of melody
IN THE GROOVE/IN THE MOMENT
The only focus is to give up the funk. No story, no musical journey toward a goal.
ROAD TO RAP
The emphasis on rhythm and the chantlike melodies are a prelude to rap and techno
Listen to this selection in the unit playlist.
Like Brown and Stone, Clinton creates the groove over static harmony: this is a one-chord song. The texture is dense: there are riffs and sustained chords from both horns and keyboards, high obbligato lines from a synthesizer, an active but open bass line, lots of percussion, and voices—both the choral effect of the backup singers and Clinton’s proto-rap. Clinton gives Bootsy Collins a chance to stretch out. Collins’s lines are active, syncopated, and melodic, calling attention to the increasingly prominent role of the bass in this branch of black music.
The rhythm has a sixteen-beat feel over the eight-beat rhythm laid down in the drum part. Clinton’s rap-like introduction moves at this faster rhythm, and so do the horn riffs, the bass line, and the guitar parts. This is a denser version of Stone’s proto-funk style. It is a darker sound as well, mainly because of Clinton’s voice and the prominence of the bass.
Clinton’s various bands ran into trouble in the late seventies, primarily because of bad money management, sloppy business practices, and drug abuse. By 1981, Clinton had consolidated the two versions of the band under one name, the P-Funk All Stars.
In its purest form, funk never crossed over to the pop mainstream. “Tear the Roof Off the Sucker,” which was Parliament’s highest-charting song, only reached No. 15. It was more successful commercially in pop/funk fusions, such as those by Earth, Wind & Fire.
From the time Jerry Wexler coined the term, “rhythm and blues” has also embraced not only rhythmic and bluesy music but also black pop, which emphasizes melody and harmony over strong rhythm and deep blues feeling. During the 1950s and 1960s, black pop and rhythmic and bluesy R&B inhabited largely discrete worlds: doo-wop and Motown versus big beat music, electric blues and soul. James Brown didn’t sing black pop; Diana Ross didn’t sing soul.
Few artists have successfully fused these two streams. Among the few are two truly great performers: Ray Charles and Aretha Franklin. Both brought soul into pop, and vice versa. In the early seventies, Marvin Gaye and Stevie Wonder moved easily between funk and romantic pop. In the latter part of the decade, Earth, Wind & Fire joined them.
Maurice White (1941-2016), the founder and leader of Earth, Wind & Fire, named the group after his astrological sign. He was a Sagittarian: the sign contains three of the four elements—earth, wind, and fire—but not water.
After a successful career as a session drummer at Chess Records and with jazz pianist Ramsey Lewis, White set out in 1969 to create a new kind of group. By 1971, they were Earth, Wind & Fire. The next year, they moved to Columbia (now Sony) Records and continued to climb up the charts. By 1975, they had become one of the elite groups of the decade, both on record and in live performance, and remained a top act through the end of the decade.
Earth, Wind & Fire was a big group. In this respect, they were in step with other black acts, such as George Clinton’s funk bands, Barry White’s Love Unlimited Orchestra, and the various Philadelphia groups. As many as fourteen musicians could be on stage. The nucleus of the band was White, who sang and played a kalimba, an African thumb piano; his brother Verdine (b. 1951) on bass; and singer Philip Bailey (b. 1951). In words and music, the group projected a positive attitude, as we hear in their first No. 1 single, the Grammy-winning 1975 hit “Shining Star.”
In “Shining Star,” Earth, Wind & Fire juxtapose funk and more melodious music within a single song: the verse sets up a complex funk-style groove over a single chord, while the refrain underpins a more coherent, riff-based melodic line with rapidly changing harmonies. Rich harmony helps project the optimistic, hopeful mood of the title and refrain: “Shining star for you to see, what your life can truly be.”
Earth, Wind & Fire’s ability to meld funk-like grooves with more melodious material is one key to their crossover success. This versatility is evident in the range of their hit songs, from soulful ballads like “That’s the Way of the World” to funkish grooves like “Serpentine Fire.” Few seventies acts were at home in both funk and black pop styles; fewer still succeeded in blending the two. Earth, Wind & Fire was one of them.
The influence of funk was far more extensive than its market share. Its more active and complex rhythms bled into much of the new music of the latter part of the 1970s and early 1980s. It’s apparent in much pop-oriented black music, and even more in disco. Much disco employed a more obvious form of funk rhythms. However, it was rap that was most directly influenced by funk; indeed, with the advent of digital technology, rappers sampled Clinton’s music mercilessly.
Earth, Wind & Fire.
STYLE: Funk/black pop fusion ⋅ FORM: Verse/chorus
Lead and backup vocals, trumpets, saxophones, keyboards, electric guitars, bass, drums, additional percussion
Extensive syncopation over active sixteen-beat rhythm, mainly in guitar and drums
Both verse and chorus built mainly from repeated riffs
One chord in the verse, quickly changing percussion in chorus
Dense, with numerous active syncopated lines
Both words and music emphasize the power of positive thinking
The verse of this song is Earth, Wind & Fire’s take on funk. By contrast, the chorus is more melodic and has active harmony, although it retains the groove.
It is marked in the guitar and conga drum. Other rhythms map onto this faster rhythm; most are syncopated.
STACKS OF RIFFS
Numerous riffs in the horns and rhythm instruments help create a dense texture
Listen to this selection in the unit playlist.
· 60-2 Rastafarianism
· 60-4 From Ska to Reggae
· 60-6 Bob Marley and 1970s Reggae
Most Jamaicans are of African descent—about 90 percent at the turn of the twenty-first century—and most trace their roots back to slavery. Like the United States, Cuba, and Brazil, Jamaica was a destination for the slave traders. More than 600,000 slaves arrived in Jamaica between 1665 and 1838, the year in which the slave trade ended. British colonial rule continued for more than a century. Great Britain gradually transferred authority to Jamaicans, with the final step—independence—taken in 1962. Redress of the economic and social inequities of colonialism, however, did not keep pace with the political changes.
One result was a great deal of social unrest in the sixties. “Rude boys,” disenfranchised young black Jamaicans who grew up in the most disadvantaged sections of Kingston, personified the violent dimension of this unrest. They were sharp dressers and often carried sharp knives and guns. For many Jamaicans, including the police, they were outlaws. Others, however, saw them as heroes, much as the James Brothers and Billy the Kid were heroes to earlier generations of Americans or as today’s gangsta rappers are to some young people. Another group with a much longer history of confrontation with white authorities were Rastafarians.
Rastafarianism was an important consequence of Marcus Garvey’s crusade to elevate the status of people of African descent. Garvey, born in Jamaica, agitated for black power in the United States during the 1920s in response to the dire poverty and discrimination that the vast majority of blacks living in the Americas faced. His efforts blended church and state. Even as he pressed for an African homeland to which former slaves could return (it never materialized), he prophesied that Christ would come again as a black man. After serving half of a five-year sentence in an Atlanta prison, he was exiled from the United States and returned to Jamaica.
Rastafarians claimed that Garvey’s prophesy had been fulfilled. Jesus had indeed come again, in the person of Haile Selassie (Prince Ras Tafari), the emperor of Ethiopia. Selassie claimed lineage back to King Solomon, which Rastafarians have taken as further proof of Selassie’s divine status. In line with Selassie’s personal genealogy, Rastafarians also claim to be descendants of the twelve tribes of Israel.
These beliefs, which have never come together as “official” doctrine—as has happened in organized religions—are the religious dimension of Rastafarians’ efforts to promote a more positive image of Africa and Africans. This has largely come from within the movement.
For those on the outside, the most vivid impressions of Rastafarianism are images, smells, and sounds: dreadlocks, ganja (marijuana, which they ingest as part of their religious practice), and music. To Jamaican music, they gave a sound—Rastafarian drums—and reggae superstar Bob Marley.
The influence of rhythm and blues on Jamaican music is in part a matter of geography. Kingston, the capital city, is just over 500 miles from Miami as the crow flies and about 1,000 miles from New Orleans. Stations from all over the southern United States were within reach, at least after dark. So it should not surprise us that Jamaicans tuned in their radios to American stations in the years after World War II. For many young Jamaicans, rhythm and blues replaced mento , the Jamaican popular music of the early fifties.
Sound systems, the mobile discos so much a part of daily life in Jamaica, offered another way to hear new music from America. Sound systems were trucks outfitted with the musical necessities for a street party: records, turntables, speakers, and a microphone for the DJ. Operators would drive around, pick a place to set up, and begin to play the R&B hits that the enterprising DJs had gone to the United States to fetch.
By the end of the 1950s, Jamaican musicians had begun to absorb rhythm and blues and transform it into new kinds of music. Ska , the first new style, emerged around 1960; it would remain the dominant Jamaican sound through the first part of the decade. Ska’s most distinctive feature is a strong afterbeat: a strong, crisp chunk on the latter part of each beat. This was a Jamaican take on the shuffle rhythm heard in so much fifties R&B. It kept the long/short rhythm of the shuffle but reversed the pattern of emphasis within each beat. In the shuffle rhythm, the note that falls on the beat gets the weight; the afterbeat is lighter. In ska it is just the opposite, at times to the extent that the note on the beat is absent—there is just the afterbeat. It remains the aural trademark of early ska.
As ska evolved into rock steady in the latter half of the sixties, musicians added a backbeat layer over the afterbeats. This created a core rhythm of afterbeats at two speeds, slow and fast: which soon became the characteristic offbeat ka-CHUN-ka rhythm of reggae . Because the bass had no role in establishing and maintaining this rhythm, bass players were free to create their own lines, and the best ones did. As rock steady evolved further into reggae, other rhythmic layers were added. The absence of beat marking, the mid-range reggae rhythm, the free-roaming bass, and the complex interplay among the many instruments produced a buoyant rhythm, as we hear in Jimmy Cliff’s “The Harder They Come.”
Jimmy Cliff (born James Chambers in 1948) was one of reggae’s first stars. By the time he landed the lead role in the 1972 film The Harder They Come, he had gained an international reputation as a singer-songwriter. His appearance in the film and the songs that he recorded for the soundtrack cemented his place in popular music history. In The Harder They Come, Cliff plays Ivan O. Martin, a musician who becomes a gangster. Although his character is loosely based on a real person from the 1940s, Cliff’s title song brings the story into the present. The lyric resonates with overtones of social injustice and police oppression and brutality even as it outlines how the character will respond: “I’m gonna get my share now of what’s mine.”
STYLE Reggae ⋅ FORM Verse/chorus
Lead vocal, two keyboards (with organ sounds), piano, electric bass, drums, electric guitar
Cliff’s vocal style, with its use of falsetto and melisma, seems inspired by sixties American music. Choked guitar sound.
Moderate tempo; rock-based rhythm with distinctive reggae feel; considerable syncopation and lots of activity, some of it double-time (moving twice as fast as the rock rhythm)
Long phrases, which are repeated, in the verse and the first part of the chorus (bridge); the title phrase is a short riff
Densely layered, with several chord instruments, plus busy bass and drums behind the vocal
REGGAE AS PROTEST MUSIC
Jamaican people’s music: It came from them, and it spoke to them and for them, in direct, uncompromising language
Graduatewriterhelp.com Plagiarism Free Papers
Are you looking for custom essay writing service or even dissertation writing services? Just request for our write my paper service, and we\’ll match you with the best essay writer in your subject! With an exceptional team of professional academic experts in a wide range of subjects, we can guarantee you an unrivaled quality of custom-written papers.
Why Hire Graduatewriterhelp.com writers to do your paper?
Quality- We are experienced and have access to ample research materials.
We write plagiarism Free Content
Confidential- We never share or sell your personal information to third parties.
Support-Chat with us today! We are always waiting to answer all your questions.
Graduatewriterhelp.com is an online academic writing site catering to students from all educational levels, from high school and college to graduate level and beyond. The website has a team of experienced writers who are equipped with the knowledge and skills required to provide top-notch custom writing services for any task assigned by our customers.
At Graduatewriterhelp.com, we specialize in offering assistance with the following tasks: essays, research papers, projects, case studies, book reviews, lab reports, presentations, term papers and even editing or proofreading services as well. All these tasks can be done according to the instructions provided by our clients without compromising on the quality or accuracy of work delivered within shorter periods of time as per customer requirements. Clients also have access to knowledgeable customer support staff, which assists them with their queries at any time during the day or night when placing orders through our website interface.
In addition to the regular services offered by Graduatewriterhelp.com such as essay writing help for high school and college assignments; dissertation/thesis preparation for postgraduate programs; coursework composition for undergraduates; editing/proofreading services for students who require revisions on pre-written works; we also offer specialized services like grant proposal writing assistance for those seeking funds from external bodies; data analysis report creation based on statistical information collected from relevant sources; CV/resume formatting according to employer expectations; literature reviews postulating various interpretations on certain topics etcetera based on customer needs..
We also facilitate the completion of important applications such as those needed while applying abroad or enrolling into some universities where thoroughness is critical in order secure admissions favorably that meet admission criteria demandingly set forth by these institutions due to intense competition witnessed globally today among prospective applicants vying places available therein limited vacancies so created thereupon every academic year…
Moreover, our experts are qualified in diverse fields being well versed in different areas of knowledge too, thus enabling us to cover almost any topic that may come your way thereby providing comprehensive solutions pertaining same conclusively efficient manner possible, meeting customer deadlines within the desired timeframe successfully sans excuses whatsoever implicated concerning inconsistency matters grade expectation meeting provided via us hereunder…
By availing our services at Graduatewriterhelp.com, clients can rest assured that their work will be completed accurately within their specified deadlines without compromising quality standards expected out of professional service providers like ourselves.
Delivering a high-quality product at a reasonable price is not enough anymore.
That’s why we have developed 5 beneficial guarantees that will make your experience with our service enjoyable, easy, and safe.
You have to be 100% sure of the quality of your product to give a money-back guarantee. This describes us perfectly. Make sure that this guarantee is totally transparent.Read more
Each paper is composed from scratch, according to your instructions. It is then checked by our plagiarism-detection software. There is no gap where plagiarism could squeeze in.Read more
Thanks to our free revisions, there is no way for you to be unsatisfied. We will work on your paper until you are completely happy with the result.Read more
Your email is safe, as we store it according to international data protection rules. Your bank details are secure, as we use only reliable payment systems.Read more
By sending us your money, you buy the service we provide. Check out our terms and conditions if you prefer business talks to be laid out in official language.Read more