51) Planning gives organizations a way to deal with change that ________.
A) eliminates all uncertainty
B) reduces uncertainty
C) reduces certainty
D) increases ambiguity
52) Organizations that don’t formally plan may be more likely to have ________.
A) corrupt managers
B) legal problems
C) multiple departments performing the same task
D) a single department carrying out all company functions
53) One effect of planning on managers is that it forces them to ________.
A) fear change
B) anticipate and consider the effect of change
C) work to prevent change
D) ignore any change that doesn’t directly affect them
54) Managers who fail to plan may ________.
A) take advantage of change
B) stimulate change
C) be positively affected by change
D) be adversely affected by change
55) Which of the following is a frequently cited criticism of formal planning?
A) Plans lock organizations into rigid goals and timetables.
B) Plans take too long to create.
C) Plans create resentment within different levels of the organization.
D) Formal planning works well only for smaller companies.
56) One criticism of formal planning is that it focuses on how to beat the competition rather than how to ________.
A) have cordial relationships with the competition
B) focus on new opportunities
C) balance the organization’s budget
D) cooperate with the competition
57) Failing to discard successful plans from the past is likely to lead to ________.
A) more success because conditions are unlikely to change in the future
B) failure because conditions are likely to change in the future
C) success because of the high quality of the plans
D) failure because of the low quality of the plans
58) Studies of performance in organizations that plan have reached ________ with respect to the benefits of formal planning.
A) somewhat negative conclusions
B) no conclusion
C) extremely negative conclusions
D) generally positive conclusions
59) Studies of planning show that the key to successful planning is to make sure that the plans ________.
A) cover every possible detail
B) are high in quality and insight
C) are exceedingly simple to follow
D) are not shared with employees
60) In studies in which high-quality formal planning did not lead to higher performance, ________ usually the culprit.
A) unforeseen events or conditions were
B) demanding employees were
C) stubborn ownership was
D) lack of communication was
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