71. All of the following are characteristics of infant-directed speech EXCEPT
c.short, simple sentences.
72. Which theorist is most strongly associated with nativist theories of language?
73. According to Slobin, infants and children
a.must be taught grammar.
b.learn language strictly by imitation.
c.are programmed with rules to listen by.
d.construct their own operating principles.
e.must receive reinforcement to learn language.
74. Slobin proposes that babies are preprogrammed to pay attention to
b.the stream of sounds as a whole.
c.the middle of a string of words.
e.prefixes and suffixes.
75. Bowerman and other constructivist theorists maintain that the important factor in language development is
b.genetically programmed operating principles.
c.the constraints on language.
d.the rate of brain cell development.
e.the child’s construction of language.
76. In Fenson’s research study of more than 1,000 toddlers, the earliest age at which the transition from simple two-word sentences to more complex forms occurred was
77. Parents who talk more, read more to their children, elicit more language from them, and respond appropriately to them tend to have children who develop
a.language strictly as programmed by their genetic heritage.
b.a more complex language but at a later-than-average age.
c.language at a later age than other children.
d.language more rapidly without regard to genetic inheritance.
e.a larger vocabulary but poor grammar skills.
78. Carlos lives in Mexico and Greti lives in Switzerland. Cross-cultural research indicates that both children will do all of the following EXCEPT
a.use more nouns than verbs.
b.babble after they coo.
c.understand before they speak language.
d.use their first words at about 12 months.
e.first use two-word phrases at 18 months.
79. Billy lives in the United States, Anwar lives in Egypt. They are both beginning to learn prepositions describing locations. Both will learn which of the following prepositions last?
80. Studies of a wide variety of language communities have revealed that
a.Asian children skip the prelinguistic phase.
b.Western children tend to use language before they understand it.
c.the prelinguistic phase is identical in all language communities.
d.there is no set pattern for language development.
e.all language development is genetically programmed.
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